Otão III, Sacro Imperador Romano-Germânico
Otão III, ou Oto III (Kassel, 23 de janeiro de 980 - Civita Castellana, 23 ou 24 de janeiro de 1002), foi rei da Alemanha de 983 até 1002 e imperador do Sacro Império Romano-Germânico de 996 até 1002. Filho de Otão II, foi eleito rei em Verona aos três anos dias após a morte de seu pai.
Foi proclamado rei da Alemanha em Verona em junho de 983, quando tinha apenas tres anos de idade, e coroado em Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle em 25 de dezembro do mesmo ano. Seu pai morreu quatro dias antes da cerimônia, mas a notícia de sua morte só chegou à Alemanha após a coroação.
No início de 984, Henrique II da Baviera, que havia sido deposto como duque da Baviera por Oto II, prendeu Oto e forçou aceitarem sua regência como membro da casa reinante. Para reforçar sua posição aliou-se a Lotário, rei da França Willigis, o arcebispo de Mainz, líder do partido de Oto, induziu Henrique a liberar o rei prisioneiro, recebendo de volta o ducado da Baviera. Oto foi então devolvido a sua mãe, a princesa bizantina Teofânia de Bizâncio, que serviu de regente a partir de então. Ela abandonou a política imperialista de seu marido e devotou-se completamente a aumentar a aliança entre a Igreja e o Império. Ela não conseguiu, entretanto, evitar que a França se libertasse da influência alemã. Ela conseguiu tomar conta dos interesses nacionais do império no leste. Um de seus maiores sucessos foi conseguir manter a supremacia feudal sobre a Boêmia.
Earls Barton shown within Northamptonshire
|Population||5,353 (2001 census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||East Midlands|
|Website||Earls Barton Parish Council|
|List of places: UK • England • Northamptonshire|
The village is famous for:
- its Saxon church - which is one of the most famous remaining examples of its type in the country - another example being at nearby Brixworth.
- its shoe-making heritage.
The village was the inspiration for the film Kinky Boots and part of the film was shot here. It is based on the true story of a local boot maker who turns from traditional boots to producing fetish footwear in order to save the ailing family business and the jobs of his workers.
In The King's England: Northamptonshire, edited by Arthur Mee, we learn that:
It was here when The Conqueror gave these lands to his niece the Countess Judith, and except for the clock and the battlements it looks today as it looked then... It is called Earls Barton because it was the Earl of Huntingdon's barley farm; his house stood where the church stands and the remains of its moat can be seen.
Nikolaus Pevsner however, seems to disagree with this assessment and describes it as:
...a conspicuous and quite unmistakable Norman castle-motte. It is so close to the church that it stands partly in the church-yard; on this side it appears to have been cut back to make more room. To the N it is protected by a particularly fine ditch.
He goes on to argue that the castle was founded at the time of the Norman conquest of England and its builder ignored the then existing church, leaving it in its bailey, for a later demolition that never happened. Ironically the church outlived the castle.
In the village's small market square is a pharmacy run by a member of the Jeyes the chemists family, who invented and manufactured Jeyes Fluid and the Philadelphus Jeyes chemist chain and who lived nearby at Holly Lodge in Boughton.
The first Saxon settlement at Earls Barton was one of various settlements built on a spring-line on the Northern bank of the River Nene. The site is to be found on a spur above the flood plain. Originally (i.e. before 600 AD) the Saxon village was known as Bere-tun - which means "a place for growing Barley. Following the Norman invasion, the Domesday Book records the village as being called Buarton(e), with Countess Judith, the King's niece is listed as both the land and mill owner. She married Waltheof, Son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria who in 1065 AD became Earl of Northampton - it was from these links and with another Earl - the Earl of Huntingdon, that gave the village its prefix "Erles" from 1261 AD.
Later, in the 14th and 15th centuries a major change took place in the local economy, when sheep rearing gave prominence to the manufacture of woollen cloth, which remained a major cottage industry until the shift to the newly industrialised north several centuries later. With the wool industry, we would also have found:
- Rush mat weaving,
- Basket making,
- Chair bodging and
- plastic making.
Another change took place in the 13th century when shoes began to be made from leather bought in nearby Northampton. At this time the village had its own tanyard, which remained in operation until 1984. The census of 1801 shows that the population had by then grown to 729. By 1850 the population had trebled.
Between 1913 and 1921 ironstone was quarried locally with the ore being removed either by train or by an aerial ropeway.
The famous Church of England Parish Church of All Saints has been a feature of the town for many centuries. Its famous Saxon tower dates to 970 AD. Pevsner says that the church tower as built was not originally followed by a nave, but a chancel. He also describes the tower's bell openings as being very unusual - having five narrow arches each on turned balastrades.
All Saints' underwent two phases of Norman enlargement, one at either end of the twelfth century.
Other notable features include:
- A Norman or Saxon door and arcading on the western end of the building - this was the original entrance to the church,
- Medieval rood screen,
- Victorian font and pews,
- A modern 20th century inner porch and windows
Another feature is that every century from the tenth century onwards is represented in either the fabric or the fittings of the church building.
The village has a cricket team. The exact date that this club was established is unknown however there has been cricket in Earls Barton since the late 1800s. The club at present has three teams that play in the Northamptonshire Cricket League on Saturdays and a friendly team that plays on Sundays. It also has Kwik Cricket, U11's, U13's, U15 & U17's teams.
The local football team, Earls Barton FC was formed in the late 1800s - with the exact date now not known. When Northampton Town FC (The Cobblers) was first formed in 1897, their first game was against Earls Barton United (EBU) on 18 September 1897. The final score Cobblers 4 - EBU 1.
A speedway training track operated at Earls Barton in the early 1950s.
"Earls Barton Motors" was home to Britain's 1957 stock car World Champion, Aubrey Leighton. Aubrey was a recognized innovator and builder of stock cars, and after his retirement at the end of 1964, his famous "Pink 'Un" no. 42 car saw success in others' hands. Aubrey's son went on to an international motor sport career via Cosworth Racing Engines, and was mechanic for Grand Prix World Champion Ronnie Petersen, as well as in the Indy series in the USA. About 8 miles from Earls Barton is Brafield Stadium ("Northampton International Raceway"), a fast 1/4 mile oval that has hosted stock car racing for over 55 years. Speedway was staged at Brafield Stadium in the late 1950s and again in the late 1960s. The 1950s team were known as the Flying Foxes and the 1960s team were known as the Badgers.
Community projects & facilities etc.
- Earls Barton Fire Station
- Earls Barton Parish Council
- Earls Barton Junior School
- Earls Barton Youth Club
- Earls Barton Library
- Earls Barton Historical Society
- Earls Barton Music
- Badminton Club
- 1st Earls Barton Boys Brigade
- Under The Tower - Drama Group
- Earls Barton Museum of Village Life
- The newly refurbished Co-op
- Earls Barton Tennis Club
- Starfruit Youth Theatre Company
- Earls Barton Police Station.
- Barton Today is the free community magazine delivered every month to every single home in Earls Barton in colour. It has won a number of awards nationally and claims to be "more than just a village magazine".
This Youth Theatre Group are renowned for their outstanding acting abilities and charisma. They have performed at a number of prestigious theatres including: The Globe, Noel Coward, Sydney Opera House and at the Colosseum. Starfruit have received numerous awards the most recent being the award for the Best Youth Theatre Group in Great Britain.
Sporting link: Earls Barton was the home to one of Britain's greatest stock-car racers and builders, Aubrey Leighton, who won the World Championship in 1957. "Earls Barton Motors" still stands on the Wellingborough Road. Aubrey was a master designer and builder, and even after his retirement at the end of 1964, his car saw success in others' hands.
Aubrey's son Keith went on to international motor sport via Cosworth Racing Engines, and was mechanic for Grand Prix World Champion Ronnie Petersen, as well as in the Indy series in the USA.
A website devoted to the history of this rough-and-tumble sport is www.oldstox.com The people who built and raced stock-cars were a special breed back then: no-nonsense do-it-yourselfers, hard rivals on the track and generous comrades in between times.
Barely 8 miles from Earls Barton is the great race track of Brafield Stadium ("Northampton International Raceway"), a fast 1/4 mile oval. Speedway was staged at Brafield Stadium in the late 1950s and again in the late 1960s. The 1950s team were known as the Flying Foxes and the 1960s team were known as the Badgers.
- ^ "Area selected: Wellingborough (Non-Metropolitan District)". Neighbourhood Statistics: Full Dataset View. Office for National Statistics. http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/viewFullDataset.do?instanceSelection=03070&productId=779&$ph=60_61&datasetInstanceId=3070&startColumn=1&numberOfColumns=4&containerAreaId=790475. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Palmer, Joyce. Earls Barton: The history of a Northamptonshire Parish. ISBN 0-300-09632-1.
- Pevsner, Nikolaus; Cherry, Bridget (revision) (1973) . The Buildings of England: Northamptonshire. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. pp. 195-196. ISBN 0 14 071022 1.
- Earls Barton
- Barton Today
- Parish Council website
- Northants County Guides: Earls Barton
- Earls Barton Cricket Club
- Earls Barton United Football Club
- British Stock-Car Racing in the 1950s-1970s
Escultura do românico
A escultura do românico insere-se, de um modo geral, dentro dos objectivos artísticos do movimento, nomeadamente a comunicação entre a igreja católica e o fiel, naquele que é o reino de Deus na Terra, o templo. Deste modo a escultura vai assumir uma íntima relação com a arquitectura, inserindo-se no seu espaço como um elemento complementar, e dedicando-se, principalmente, ao ensinamento de cenas bíblicas através de relevos em pedra compreensíveis ao crente leigo.
É no românico, a partir do século XI, que se dão a conhecer as primeiras obras de escultura monumental a surgir desde o século V, período em que deixam de existir peças de vulto redondo (peças tridimensionais) e se observa uma maior produção de pequena estatuária e trabalhos em metal, desenvolvidos durante o período pré-românico.
O factor de impulso da nova produção escultórica vai ser o caminho de peregrinação em direcção a Santiago de Compostela, ao longo do qual vão ser erigidas novas igrejas, sob organização da Ordem de Cluny. Estes templos, construídos em locais de passagem neste período de fervor religioso, são virados para o acolhimento espiritual do peregrino e para a exposição de relíquias. A França e o norte de Espanha são assim os locais onde se podem observar os primeiros exemplos da produção escultórica românica aplicados à arquitectura.
Aplicação e temática
Esta aplicação à arquitectura vai incidir na fachada, principalmente no portal, local de entrada do crente e que, por isso, deverá ter o maior impacto visual. Aqui o relevo assume-se como a melhor ferramenta para a narração de cenas impressionantes, onde a volumetria ajuda a uma maior sensação de realismo que a simples superfície pintada. Para este objectivo, o tímpano, semi-circunferência sobre a entrada, vai ter uma função primordial, e vai apresentar cenas como a Visão do Apocalipse ou o Juízo Final. Estas cenas, dentro do espírito do conceito do Deus vingativo presente no Antigo Testamento, vão ser povoadas não só por figuras bíblicas (evangelistas, apóstolos) e anjos, como também por uma série de criaturas monstruosas, que deverão ser vistas e não mais esquecidas: demónios e criaturas compósitas com corpos desproporcionais e assustadores que dão aso às suas acções de tortura no Inferno.
Relativamente ao modo de representação, o objectivo não é representar a realidade visível, mas sim o invisível e o intocável, tomando-se muito partido da mímica das figuras como meio de comunicação. Não é o tratamento volumétrico o principal, mas sim o valor simbólico das figuras e o conteúdo da sua mensagem. A proporção entre as figuras é outro factor secundário, sendo que as dimensões dependem mais da sua importância hierárquica e do espaço disponível para o relevo, do que da relação que as figuras possuem entre si na realidade. Os corpos são delgados, os gestos são expressivos, e os diferentes elementos do relevo adaptam-se ao espaço arquitectónico, chegando mesmo a ser quase que amontoados de modo a caberem em pequenos espaços.
Também o interior da igreja vai expor algum relevo escultórico na criação de arcadas cegas (arcada em relevo, inserida na parede), e acima de tudo nos capitéis das colunas, onde a liberdade imaginativa e a profusão de figuras fantásticas vão atingir o máximo do burlesco. Os capitéis começam por apresentar decoração de inspiração classicista com folhagens, para passarem depois a ser figurativos, com cenas da Antiguidade, da Bíblia e mesmo temas profanos, que podem estar dispostos em ciclo ao longo de um deambulatório ou claustro.
Escultura de pequeno porte existe também, mas em número reduzido, em marfim ou madeira, que pode ser coberta a ouro ou prata (crucifixos ou estatuetas). O trabalho em bronze vai ter especial importância em instrumentos litúrgicos, portas de igrejas, pias baptismais e tampas de túmulos. Relativamente às tampas de túmulos, surge uma nova tipologia que se difunde a partir do norte de França a meados do século XII, a aplicação da figura do defunto sobre o sarcófago em posição deitada. 122
Diferenças regionais e exemplos mais significativos
Os caminhos de peregrinação levam à internacionalização do românico e, consequentemente, ao surgimento de diferentes escolas e centros produtivos com estilos diferentes. Em geral os artistas do românico permanecem anónimos, mas são conhecidas algumas assinaturas que permitem falar de estilos individuais. A título de exemplo, no capitel do deambulatório da Igreja de Saint Pierre de Chauvigny, da segunda metade do século XII, pode-se ler: GODFRIDUS ME FECIT (Godfridus fêz-me), o que pode, no entanto, indicar tanto o escultor como o autor da encomenda.
A escultura românica no sul de França inicia o seu desenvolvimento associada à arquitectura a partir do século XI. Em trabalhos iniciais é notória a influência das iluminuras e trabalhos em metal da Antiguidade.
- Igreja de Saint Sernin, século XI, em Toulouse.
- Abadia de Moissac, século XI, perto de Toulouse.
- Catedral de Autun, século XII, em Autun.
- Igreja de Sainte Madeleine, século XII, Vézelay.
- Igreja de Saint Pierre, em Angoulême e Igreja de Notre-Dame-la-Grande, em Poitiers, onde, excepcionalmente, a decoração se alastra por toda a fachada e não só no portal.
Nestas regiões é mais forte a influência das construções da Antiguidade Clássica e a escultura desprende-se mais da estrutura arquitectónica que em França.
- Igreja de Saint Gilles-du-Gard, Provença.
- Catedral de Fidenza, em Fidenza.
- Catedral de Santiago de Compostela.
- Igreja de S. Martín, em Frómista.
- Claustro de Sto. Domingo de Silos, Burgos.
Alemanha e o trabalho em metal
Na Alemanha não se observa o mesmo tipo de evolução da Espanha ou da França relativamente à escultura. Nesta região tem mais impacto a produção de peças em metal, especialmente com origem na oficina de bronzes de Hildesheim do início do século XI, de tradição otoniana. O bispo Bernward, que controla essa produção, vai cunhar o nome de um estilo próprio de peças relacionadas com as cerimónias litúrgicas.
As peças em bronze ou ouro (vasos para lavagem ritual das mãos, cofres para relíquias, etc), encomendadas por reis e bispos, representam não só o gosto artístico da época, mas acima de tudo o poder da classe religiosa.
Tímpano do portal ocidental da Abadis de Ste-Foy, França.
Pormenor do tímpano na Igreja de Sainte Madeleine, séc. XII, Vézelay.
Capitel inicial com folhagens do séc. XI, Igreja de Saint Sernin, Toulouse.
Capitel na Igreja de Sainte Madeleine, séc. XII, Vézelay.
Capitel da Catedral de Autun, O Enforcamento de Judas, séc. XII, Autun.
- Arquitectura do românico
- Arquitectura românica em Portugal
- Idade Média
- Rota do Românico do Vale do Sousa
- BEDNORZ, Achim, GEESE, Uwe, Skulpturen – Romanik, Gotik, Renaissance, Barock, Feierabend Verlag OHG, Berlim, 2004, ISBN 3-8-9985-048-3
- JANSON, H. W., História da Arte, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa, 1992, ISBN 972-31-0498-9
- THIELE, Carmela, Skulptur, Schnellkurs, DuMont Buchverlag, 1995, ISBN 3-7701-3537-7
- WETZEL, Christoph, Das Reclam Buch der Kunst, Reclam, 2001, ISBN 3150104769
Tapeçaria de Bayeux
A Tapeçaria de Bayeux é uma obra feita em bordado, datada do século XII. Foi feita em Inglaterra para comemorar os eventos da batalha de Hastings (14 de Outubro 1066) e o sucesso da Conquista Normanda de Inglaterra, levada a cabo por Guilherme II, Duque da Normandia. Algumas lendas referem que a tapeçaria tenha sido bordada por Matilde da Flandres, rainha consorte de Guilherme, e pelas suas aias. O mais provável é ter sido feita numa oficina profissional, por encomenda de Odo, Bispo de Bayeux e meio irmão de Guilherme. A tapeçaria é um bordado de lã tingida com vários pigmentos vegetais.
A tapeçaria mede cerca de 70 metros de comprimento por meio metro de altura. O trabalho de bordado representa 58 cenas que retratam a caminhada de Guilherme desde a Normandia, passando pelo desembarque de 28 de Setembro e a batalha de Hastings, até à sua coroação como rei de Inglaterra no dia de natal de 1066. Esta disposição é invulgar para a época e faz com que a tapeçaria seja uma peça importante na História da Arte. Alguns historiadores conferem à tapeçaria de Bayeux o estatuto de percursor da banda desenhada(no Brasil, História em Quadrinhos).
A secção que representa a batalha de Hastings tem sido estudada por gerações de historiadores militares por ser um documento das armas, armaduras e parafernália militar da época. É também, apesar do óbvio ponto de vista a favor de Guilherme, um dos relatos disponíveis da batalha. Durante muitos anos, julgou-se que Haroldo II de Inglaterra tivesse morrido com uma seta no olho, durante a batalha, com base na tapeçaria de Bayeux. Recentemente, provou-se que a figura tinha sido mal identificada e que Haroldo não se encontra representado. Outra imagem importante contida na tapeçaria é o Cometa Halley, retratado em destaque por ser interpretado como um prenúncio da ascensão de Guilherme ao trono. De facto, cálculos astronómicos mostram que este cometa esteve visível em 1066.
Catedral de Monreale
A Catedral de Monreale (Duomo di Monreale, em italiano) é uma das mais importantes construções sacras da cultura normanda na Itália. A igreja é dedicada a Santa Maria Nuova, e se localiza na cidade de Monreale, na Sicília.
Foi construída a partir de 1174 por ordem de Guilherme II da Sicília. A lenda narra que certo dia Guilherme adormeceu sob uma árvore no campo e em sonho lhe apareceu a Virgem Maria, que disse: "Neste lugar onde dormes está escondido o maior tesouro do mundo. Escava-o e com ele constrói um templo em minha homenagem". Seguindo o mandado, ao acordar o rei ordenou que o local fosse escavado e ali encontrou um tesouro de moedas de ouro, empregadas na construção do santuário. Para a decoração foram chamados mestres árabes, venezianos e bizantinos especializados na técnica do mosaico, cobrindo a abside e as paredes com painéis de excepcional valor artístico.
A fachada possui um pórtico renascentista com três grandes arcos, acrescentado entre 1547 e 1569, obra de Giovanni Domenico Gagini e Fazio Gagini, que oculta o frontispício primitivo, decorado com mosaicos, relevos e portas de bronze de Bonanno Pisano e Barisano da Trani. Lateralmente se erguem duas torres quadradas assimétricas, ladeado o frontão recuado, decorado com arcos entrelaçados em relevo.
O amplo interior se divide em três naves, seguindo o esquema das basílicas católicas italianas, integrando características da arquitetura ortodoxa em áreas como o coro tripartido. A colunata monolítica no interior é possivelmente originária de construções mais antigas, e suporta uma série de grandes arcos que separam as naves. Os capitéis coríntios datam do período clássico. Um clerestório elevado ilumina o interior da nave central, e janelas mais baixam se abrem ao longo das estreitas naves laterais. O coro na entrada forma um espaço de características diferenciadas, sendo mais alto e mais largo que a nave, embora dividido de forma semelhante. O teto tem caibramento aparente em madeira ricamente decorada. Separada da nave por um transepto está a capela-mor, de forma absidal e teto em meia-cúpula, com uma janela única ao centro da parede de fundo e um altar-mor do século XVIII de Luigi Valadier, de refinada construção em metais preciosos.
A característica mais notável da construção é a sua decoração interna em mosaicos policromos e dourados, uma obra-prima da técnica, cobrindo quase em totalidade o interior, com um extraordinário efeito de conjunto, mostrando frisos geométricos, medalhões e diversas imagens de santos e anjos, com inscrições em grego e latim, e ilustram vários episódios da Bíblia. De todas as cenas se destaca o monumental Cristo Pantocrator na capela-mor, com a Virgem e o Menino, santos e anjos abaixo. O piso também merece atenção pelo refinado trabalho em mosaico de mármore e pórfiro, numa técnica conhecida como opus alexandrinum, completado somente no século XVI.
No interior também existe as tumbas de Guilherme II, um magnífico sarcófago de pórfiro da mesma época da catedral, e as de sua esposa e seus dois filhos, além de uma urna com as vísceras de São Luís de França. Nos séculos XVII e XVIII foram acrescentadas duas capelas barrocas, embora mais tarde tenham sido isoladas do corpo da igreja. O coro foi parcialmente destruído por um incêndio em 1811, danificando os mosaicos, os órgãos e o forro, reconstruídos poucos anos após, embora com técnica e gosto bastante inferiores aos originais.
Ao lado da Catedral ficam o Palácio Arquiepiscopal e o Mosteiro Beneditino, originalmente construções magnificentes rodeadas de uma grande muralha e torres. Mais tarde o complexo sofreu profundas remodelações, restando pouco da arquitetura normanda primitiva, salvo alguns torreões e o belo claustro, um dos mais significativos da Itália por suas dimensões e rica decoração de mosaicos e colunas duplas, cujos capitéis são todos diferentes entre si. Guy de Maupassant descreveu o claustro como "maravilhoso (...), sugerindo uma sensação de graça que nos faz desejar ficar aqui para sempre (...). Nunca vi nem posso imaginar uma colunata com maior harmonia".
The western end of the cathedral
|Full name||Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity|
|Denomination||Church of England|
|Architectural style||Romanesque & Gothic|
|Width across transepts||43.9m|
Gloucester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the river. It originated in 678 or 679 with the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter (dissolved by King Henry VIII).
The foundations of the present church were laid by Abbot Serlo (1072–1104), later to become the first Dean of Exeter. Walter Gloucester (d. 1412) the abbey's historian, became its first mitred abbot in 1381. Until 1541, Gloucester lay in the see of Worcester, but the separate see was then constituted, with John Wakeman, last abbot of Tewkesbury, as its first bishop. The diocese covers the greater part of Gloucestershire, with small parts of Herefordshire and Wiltshire. The cathedral has a stained glass window containing the earliest images of golf. This dates from 1350, over 300 years earlier than the earliest image of golf from Scotland. There is also a carved image of people playing a ball game, believed by some to be one of the earliest images of medieval football.
Construction and architecture
The cathedral, built as the abbey church, consists of a Norman nucleus (Walter de Lacy is buried there), with additions in every style of Gothic architecture. It is 420 feet (130 m) long, and 144 feet (44 m) wide, with a fine central tower of the 15th century rising to the height of 225 ft (69 m) and topped by four delicate pinnacles, a famous landmark. The nave is massive Norman with an Early English roof; the crypt, under the choir, aisles and chapels, is Norman, as is the chapter house. The crypt is one of the four apsidal cathedral crypts in England, the others being at Worcester, Winchester and Canterbury.
The south porch is in the Perpendicular style, with a fan-vaulted roof, as also is the north transept, the south being transitional Decorated Gothic. The choir has Perpendicular tracery over Norman work, with an apsidal chapel on each side: the choir vaulting is particularly rich. The late Decorated east window is partly filled with surviving medieval stained glass. Between the apsidal chapels is a cross Lady chapel, and north of the nave are the cloisters, the carrels or stalls for the monks' study and writing lying to the south. The cloisters at Gloucester are the earliest surviving fan vaults, having been designed between 1351 and 1377 by Thomas de Cambridge.
The most notable monument is the canopied shrine of King Edward II of England who was murdered at nearby Berkeley Castle (illustration below). The building and sanctuary were enriched by the visits of pilgrims to this shrine. In a side-chapel is a monument in coloured bog oak of Robert Curthose, eldest son of William the Conqueror and a great benefactor of the abbey, who was interred there. Monuments of Bishop Warburton and Dr Edward Jenner are also worthy of note.
Between 1873 and 1890, and in 1897, the cathedral was extensively restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott.
The cathedral has forty-six 14th-century misericords and twelve 19th-century replacements by George Gilbert Scott. Both types have a wide range of subject matter: mythology, everyday occurrences, religious symbolism and folklore.
Three Choirs Festival
An annual musical festival, the Three Choirs Festival, is hosted by turns in this cathedral and those of Worcester and Hereford in turn. The festival is the oldest annual musical festival in the world. Three Choirs Festival
The known organists of the cathedral are listed below. In modern times, the most senior post has become known as Director of Music; only these names are recorded here.
- William Hine 1707 – 1710 (later organist of Gloucester Cathedral)
- John Alexander Matthews 1862 - 1865
- Henry John Vaughan ? - 1873
- George Robertson Sinclair 1879 – 1880 (later organist at Truro Cathedral and Hereford Cathedral)
- A. Herbert Brewer 1880 - 1882
- George Washbourn Morgan
- James Capener
- A. Herbert Brewer - 1896
- Ivor Morgan 1898
- Ambrose Robert Porter 1907 – 1913 (later organist of Lichfield Cathedral)
- Harold C. Organ 1915 -
- Reginald Tustin Baker 1920 – 1926 (later organist of Sheffield Cathedral)
- William O Minay 1926 – 1927 (later organist of Wigan Parish Church)
- Arthur John Pritchard 1927 – 1932
- (Alfred) Melville Cook 1932 – 1937 (later organist of Hereford Cathedral)
- W. Lugg 1938
- Peter Stuart Rodway
- Donald Frederick Hunt 1948 – 1954
- Wallace Michael Ross 1954 – 1958 (later organist of Derby Cathedral)
- John Sanders 1958 – 1963
- Richard Latham
- John Francis Clough
- Andrew Millington 1975 – 1983 (later organist of Guildford Cathedral)
- Mark Blatchly 1983 – 1990
- Mark Lee 1990 – 1998
- Ian Ball 1998 – 2002
- Robert Houssart 2002 – 2008
- Ashley Grote 2008 – current
See also the List of Organ Scholars at Gloucester Cathedral.
Use by schools and as a film location
Locations for Harry Potter films
The cathedral has been used from 2000 as a location for filming the first, second and sixth Harry Potter films, which has generated revenue and publicity, but caused some controversy amongst those who suggest that the theme of the films was unsuitable for a church.
University of Gloucestershire
The King's School
The cathedral is also used during school term-time as the venue for regular school assemblies, known as morning chapel by The King's School, Gloucester which is deeply historically and physically connected to the cathedral, and also for events by the High School for Girls (Denmark Road, Gloucester), the Crypt Grammar School for boys and Ribston Hall High School.
- 678-9 A small religious community was founded here in Saxon times by Osric of the Hwicce. His sister Kyneburga was the first Abbess.
- 1017 Secular priests expelled; the monastery given to Benedictine monks.
- 1072 Serlo, the first Norman abbot, appointed to the almost defunct monastery by William I.
- 1089 Foundation stone of the new abbey church laid by Robert de Losinga, Bishop of Hereford.
- 1100 Consecration of St. Peter’s Abbey.
- 1216 First coronation of King Henry III.
- 1327 Burial of King Edward II.
- 1331 Perpendicular remodelling of the quire.
- 1373 Great Cloister begun by Abbot Horton; completed by Abbott Frouster (1381–1412).
- 1420 West End rebuilt by Abbot Morwent
- 1450 Tower begun by Abbot Sebrok; completed by Robert Tully.
- 1470 Lady Chapel rebuilt by Abbot Hanley; completed by Abbot Farley (1472–98)
- 1540 Dissolution of Abbey
- 1541 Refounded as a Cathedral by King Henry VIII.
- 1616–21 William Laud holds the office of dean of Gloucester.
- 1649–60 Abolition of Dean and Chapter, reinstated by Charles II.
- 1735–52 Martin Benson, Bishop of Gloucester carried out major repairs and alterations to the cathedral.
- 1847–73 Beginning of extensive Victorian restoration work (Frederick S. Waller and Sir G. Gilbert Scott, architects).
- 1953 Major appeal for the restoration of the cathedral; renewed
- 1968 Cathedral largely re-roofed and other major work completed.
- 1989 900th anniversary appeal.
- 1994 Restoration of tower completed.
- 2000 Celebration of the novecentennial of the consecration of St Peter’s Abbey
- List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom
- Richard Pate whose tomb is in the cathedral
- Edward II who is buried in the cathedral
- The King's School, Gloucester
- Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England
- English Gothic architecture
- Romanesque architecture
- Church of England
- ^ "The first Golf record?". A Royal and Ancient Golf History video. Fore Tee Video. http://www.foreteevideo.co.uk/Gloucester.html. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- ^ Britton, John; Godwin, George (1838), A dictionary of the architecture and archaeology of the middle ages: including words used by ancient and modern authors in treating of architectural and other antiquities ... also, biographical notices of ancient architects, Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, p. 85
- ^ Harvey, John (1978). The Perpendicular Style. Batsford. ISBN 0713416106.
- ^ "Three Choirs Festival". http://www.3choirs.org/. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- ^ "New Director of Music Announced". Gloucester Cathedral website. Dean and Chapter of Gloucester Cathedral. 2007-05-08. http://www.gloucestercathedral.org.uk/news.asp?id=95&page=1. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- ^ Simmons (1962) Who's who in music and musicians' international directory p.168
- ^ Simmons (1962) Who's who in music and musicians' international directory p.45
- ^ Shenton, Kenneth (2003-12-31). "John Sanders". Obituaries (The Independent). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/john-sanders-549173.html. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- ^ Information for the Ceremonies held at Gloucester Cathedral University of Gloucestershire website
- Simmons, D A (1962). Who's who in music and musicians' international directory (4th. ed.). London: Burke's Peerage Ltd. OCLC 13309419. Published in America as Simmons, David (1962). Who's who in music and musicians' international directory (4th. ed.). New York: Hafner Publishing Company. OCLC 12923270.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gloucester Cathedral|
- Official website
- A history of the choristers of Gloucester Cathedral
- A history of Harry Potter at Gloucester Cathedral
- Adrian Fletcher’s Paradoxplace – Gloucester Cathedral Pages – Photos
- Photograph of Gloucester Cathedral Cloister
- Three Choirs website
- Flickr images tagged Gloucester Cathedral
- Flickr group of photos of Gloucester Cathedral
- A photo album and description of the misericords at Gloucester Cathedral
Renier de Huy
Renier de Huy or Rainer of Huy (also Reiner, van, etc in any combination) was a 12th century metalworker and sculptor to whom is attributed a major masterpiece of Mosan art, the baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège in Liege, Belgium of 1107-18. The Meuse River valley in modern Belgium and France, roughly comprising the Diocese of Liège, was the leading 12th century centre of Romanesque metalwork, which was still the most prestigious medium in art. Nothing is known of Rainer's life other than that a "Reinerus aurifaber" witnessed a charter of the Bishop of Liège relating to a church in Huy in 1125, but the 15th century Liège chronicle mentions him as the artist of the font. He may have died about 1150. Another equally shadowy figure in Mosan metalwork from the next generation, Godefroid de Huy/de Claire, also came from the small but prosperous city of Huy on the Meuse.
The only other work generally agreed to be by the same master as the font is a small bronze crucifix figure (Schnütgen Museum, Cologne); another in Brussels is probably from the same mould, with extra chasing. Others in Brussels and Dublin are probably from the workshop as they have many similarities.
- ^ Swarzenski, 58, Calkins, 125
- ^ Lasko, 182 (other sources, such as Oxford, say the mention was 14th not 15th century)
- ^ Beckwith, 178. The Getty Union Artist Names List has him active until 1144 
- ^ Lasko, 181, and plate 182 for the Cologne figure. one of the Brussels figures is illustrated in Xhayet and Halleux, before p. 129
- Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art: Carolingian, Ottonian, Romanesque, Thames & Hudson, 1964 (rev. 1969), ISBN 050020019X
- Calkins, Robert G.; Monuments of Medieval Art, Dutton, 1979, ISBN 0525475613
- Lasko, Peter, Ars Sacra, 800-1200, Penguin History of Art (now Yale), 1972 (nb, 1st edn.) ISBN14056036X
- "Oxford": Rainer of Huy: The Oxford Dictionary of Art." Accessed 10 Jan. 2010, 
- Swarzenski, Hanns. Monuments of Romanesque Art; The Art of Church Treasures in North-Western Europe, Faber and Faber, 1974, ISBN 0571105882
- Xhayet, Geneviève and Halleux, Robert (eds), Études sur les fonts baptismaux de Saint-Barthélémy à Liège, Editions du CEFAL, 2006, ISBN 287130212X, 9782871302124 google books
Durham Cathedral from across the River Wear
|Full name||Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham|
|Denomination||Church of England|
|Diocese created||995 (continuation of the see of Lindisfarne)|
|Dean||The Very Revd Michael Sadgrove|
|Precentor||The Revd Canon Dr David Kennedy|
|Canons||The Revd Canon Rosalind Brown |
The Revd Canon Dr Stephen Cherry
The Ven Ian Jagger
The Revd Canon Prof Mark McIntosh
|Other chapter members||Philip Davies (Clerk) |
Dr David Hunt (Lay member)
Adrian Beney (Lay member)
|Director of |
|Canon James Lancelot (Organist and Master of the Choristers)|
|Organist||Keith Wright (Sub Organist)|
|Length||469 feet (143 m) (interior)|
|Width (nave)||81 feet (25 m) (inc aisles)|
|Height (nave)||73 feet (22 m)|
|Height (choir)||74 feet (23 m)|
|Tower height(s)||218 feet (66 m) (central tower) |
144 feet (44 m) (western towers)
The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham — known as Durham Cathedral — in the city of Durham, England, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Durham. The Bishopric dates from 995, with the present cathedral being founded in AD 1093. The cathedral is regarded as one of the finest examples of Norman architecture and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with nearby Durham Castle, which faces it across Palace Green.
The present cathedral replaces the 10th century "White Church" built as part of a monastic foundation to house the shrine of Saint Cuthbert of Lindisfarne. The treasures of Durham Cathedral include relics of St Cuthbert, the head of St Oswald of Northumbria and the remains of the Venerable Bede.
Durham Cathedral occupies a strategic position on a promontory high above the River Wear. From 1080 until the 19th century the bishopric enjoyed the powers of a Bishop Palatine, having military as well as religious leadership and power. Durham Castle was built as the residence for the Bishop of Durham. The seat of the Bishop of Durham is the fourth most significant in the Church of England hierarchy, and he stands at the right hand of the monarch at coronations. Signposts for the modern day County Durham are subtitled "Land of the Prince Bishops."
There are daily Church of England services at the Cathedral, with the Durham Cathedral Choir singing daily except Mondays and while the choir is in recess. The cathedral is a major tourist attraction within the region, the central tower of 217 feet (66 m) giving views of Durham and the surrounding area.
The see of Durham takes its origins from the Diocese of Lindisfarne, founded by Saint Aidan at the behest of Oswald of Northumbria around AD 635. The see lasted until AD 664, at which point it was translated to York. The see was then reinstated at Lindisfarne in AD 678 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The community at Lindisfarne Priory produced many saints, of which Saint Cuthbert who was Bishop of Lindisfarne from AD 685 until his death on Farne Island in 687 is central to the development of Durham Cathedral.
After repeated Viking raids, the monks fled Lindisfarne in AD 875, carrying St Cuthbert's relics with them. The diocese of Lindisfarne remained itinerant until 882, when a community was re-established in Chester-le-Street. The see had its seat here until AD 995, when further incursions once again caused the monks to move with the relics. According to local legend, the monks followed two milk maids who were searching for a dun (i.e. brown) cow and were led into a peninsula formed by a loop in the River Wear. At this point Cuthbert's coffin became immovable. This was taken as sign that the new shrine should be built here. A more prosaic set of reasons for the selection of the peninsula is its highly defensible position, and that a community established here would enjoy the protection of the Earl of Northumberland, as the bishop at this time, Aldhun, had strong family links with the earls. Nevertheless, the street leading from The Bailey past the Cathedral's eastern towers up to Palace Green is named Dun Cow Lane.
Initially, a very simple temporary structure was built from local timber to house the relics of Cuthbert. The shrine was then transferred to a sturdier, probably wooden, building known as the White Church. This church was itself replaced three years later in 998 by a stone building also known as the White Church and which was complete apart from its tower by 1018. Durham soon became a site of pilgrimage, encouraged by the growing cult of Saint Cuthbert. King Canute was one early pilgrim, granting many privileges and much land to the Durham community. The defendable position, flow of money from pilgrims and power embodied in the church at Durham ensured that a town formed around the cathedral, establishing the early core of the modern city.
The present cathedral was designed and built under William of St. Carilef (or William of Calais) who was appointed as the first prince-bishop by William the Conqueror in 1080. Since that time, there have been major additions and reconstructions of some parts of the building, but the greater part of the structure remains true to the Norman design. Construction of the cathedral began in 1093 at the eastern end. The choir was completed by 1096 and work proceeded on the nave of which the walls were finished by 1128, and the high vault complete by 1135. The Chapter House, demolished in the 18th century, was built between 1133 and 1140. William died in 1099 before the building's completion, passing responsibility to his successor Ranulf Flambard who also built Flamwell Bridge, the first crossing of the River Wear in the town. Three bishops William of St. Carilef, Ranulf Flambard, and Hugh de Puiset are all buried in the rebuilt Chapter House.
In the 1170s, Bishop Hugh de Puiset, after a false start at the eastern end where the subsidence and cracking prevented work from continuing, added the Galilee Chapel at the west end of the cathedral. The five-aisled building occupies the position of a porch, it functioned as a Lady Chapel and the Great West Door was blocked during the Medieval period by an altar to the Virgin Mary. The door is now blocked by the tomb of Bishop Langley. The Galilee Chapel also holds the remains of the Venerable Bede. The main entrance to the cathedral is on the northern side, facing towards the Castle.
In 1228 Richard le Poore came from Salisbury where a new cathedral was being built in the Gothic style. At this time, the eastern end of the cathedral was in urgent need of repair and the proposed eastern extension had failed. Richard le Poore employed the architect Richard Farnham to design an eastern terminal for the building in which many monks could say the Daily Office simultaneously. The resulting building was the Chapel of the Nine Altars. The towers also date from the early 13th century, but the central tower was damaged by lightning and replaced in two stages in the 15th century, the master masons being Thomas Barton and John Bell.
The Shrine of St. Cuthbert was located in the eastern apsidal end of the cathedral. The location of the inner wall of the apse is marked on the pavement, and St. Cuthbert's tomb is covered by a simple slab. However, an unknown monk wrote in in 1593:
[The shrine] "was estimated to be one of the most sumptuous in all England, so great were the offerings and jewells bestowed upon it, and endless the miracles that were wrought at it, even in these last days."—Rites of Durham, 
Cuthbert's tomb was destroyed on the orders of Henry VIII in 1538, and the monastery's wealth handed over to the king. The body of the saint was exhumed, and according to the Rites of Durham, was discovered to be uncorrupted. It was reburied under a plain stone slab, but the ancient paving around it remains intact, worn by the knees of pilgrims. Two years later, on December 31, 1540, the Benedictine monastery at Durham was dissolved, and the last prior of Durham -- Hugh Whitehead -- became the first dean of the cathedral's secular chapter.
The Seventeenth Century
After the Battle of Dunbar, September 3, 1650, Durham Cathedral was used by Oliver Cromwell as a makeshift prison to hold Scottish prisoners-of-war. It is estimated that as many as 3,000 were imprisoned of whom 1,700 died in the cathedral itself, where they were kept in inhumane conditions, largely without food, water or heat. The prisoners destroyed much of the cathedral woodwork for firewood but Prior Castell's clock, which featured the Scottish thistle, was spared. The prisoners' bodies were buried in unmarked graves. The survivors were shipped as slave labour to North America.
In 1946 during work to install a new central heating system for the University, a mass grave of the Scottish soldiers was uncovered. In 1993 the Scottish Covenanter's Memorials Association discussed with the Cathedral the construction of a memorial to the soldiers, but this was inconclusive. Towards the end of 2007 a campaign was launched to commemorate the Dunbar Martyrs. Among the aims of the campaigners are to gain a Christian blessing for the dead and a memorial at the Cathedral burial site. Exhumation of the remains and reburial in Scotland is also under consideration.
Bishop John Cosin, who had previously been a canon of the cathedral, set about restoring the damage and refurnishing the building with new stalls, the litany desk and the towering canopy over the font. An oak screen to carry the organ was added at this time to replace a stone screen pulled down in the 16th century. On the remains of the old refectory, the Dean, John Sudbury founded a library which contains early printed books.
1700 - 1900
During the 18th century, the deans of Durham often held another position in the south of England, and after spending the statuatory time in residence, would depart to manage their affairs. Consequently, after Cosin's refurbishment, there was little by way of restoration or rebuilding. When work commenced again on the building, it was of a most unsympathetic nature. In 1773 the architect George Nicholson, having completed the Prebend's Bridge across the Wear, persuaded the Dean and Chapter to let him smooth off much of the outer stonework of the cathedral, thereby considerably altering its character.
The architect James Wyatt greatly added to the destruction by demolishing half the Chapter House, altering the stonework of the east end and inserting a very large rose window which was supposed to be faithful to one that had been there in the 13th century. Wyatt also planned to demolish the Galilee Chapel, but the Dean, John Cornwallis, returned and prevented it, just as the lead was being stripped from the roof.
The restoration of the cathedral's tower between 1854 and 1859 was by the architect Sir George Gilbert Scott, working with Edward Robert Robson, who went on to serve as architect in charge of the cathedral for six years. and a statue of William Van Mildert, the last prince-bishop (1826–1836) and driving force behind the foundation of Durham University.
|Durham Castle and Cathedral*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|State Party||United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|Criteria||ii, iv, vi|
|Region**||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1986 (10th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. |
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Today, the Cathedral remains the seat of the Bishop of Durham.
In 1986, the Cathedral, together with the nearby Castle, became a World Heritage Site. The UNESCO committee classified the Cathedral under criteria C (ii) (iv) (vi), reporting, "Durham Cathedral is the largest and most perfect monument of 'Norman' style architecture in England".
Interior views of the Cathedral were featured in the 1998 film Elizabeth.
In November 2009 the Cathedral admitted female choristers for the first time. Two weeks later the Cathedral featured in a son et lumière festival whose highlight was the illumination of the North Front of the Cathedral with a 15 minute presentation which told the story of Lindisfarne and the foundation of Cathedral, using illustrations and text from the Lindisfarne Gospels.
The building is notable for the ribbed vault of the nave roof, with pointed transverse arches supported on relatively slender composite piers alternated with massive drum columns, and flying buttresses or lateral abutments concealed within the triforium over the aisles. These features appear to be precursors of the Gothic architecture of Northern France a few decades later, doubtless due to the Norman stonemasons responsible, although the building is considered Romanesque overall. It was the skilled use of the pointed arch and ribbed vault which made it possible to cover far more elaborate and complicated ground plans than hitherto. The buttressing made it possible both to build taller buildings and to open up the intervening wall spaces to create larger windows.
Saint Cuthbert's tomb lies at the East in the Feretory and was once an elaborate monument of cream marble and gold. It remains a place of pilgrimage.
Organ and organists
| || |
- John Matthew Wilson Young, --?-- to 1850 (then organist of Lincoln Cathedral)
- Thomas Henry Collinson
- J.C. Whitehead, ? - 1874
- Revd John Lionel Shirley Dampier Bennett, 1895–1903
- F. E. Leatham, 1901 (temporary during absence of J. L. Bennett)
- William Ellis, 1903 - 1918 (afterwards organist of Newcastle Cathedral)
- Basil S. Maine, 1918-1919
- Cyril Beaumont Maude, 1919–1968
- Bruce Richard Cash, 1968–1972
- Alan Thurlow, 1973 - 1980 (later Organist Chichester Cathedral)
- David Hill, 1980–1982
- Ian Shaw, 1982–1985
- Keith Wright, 1991–present
See also the List of Organ Scholars at Durham Cathedral.
"Durham is one of the great experiences of Europe to the eyes of those who appreciate architecture, and to the minds of those who understand architecture. The group of Cathedral, Castle, and Monastery on the rock can only be compared to Avignon and Prague." -- Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England.
"I paused upon the bridge, and admired and wondered at the beauty and glory of this scene...it was grand, venerable, and sweet, all at once; I never saw so lovely and magnificent a scene, nor, being content with this, do I care to see a better." -- Nathaniel Hawthorne on Durham Cathedral, The English Notebooks.
'With the cathedral at Durham we reach the incomparable masterpiece of Romanesque architecture not only in England but anywhere. The moment of entering provides for an architectural experience never to be forgotten, one of the greatest England has to offer.' -- Alec Clifton-Taylor, 'English Towns' series on BBC television.
- "Grey towers of Durham
- Yet well I love thy mixed and massive piles
- Half church of God, half castle 'gainst the Scot
- And long to roam those venerable aisles
- With records stored of deeds long since forgot."
Durham Cathedral and Castle
Church of St. Trophime
The Church of St. Trophime (Trophimus) is a Roman Catholic church and former cathedral built between the 12th century and the 15th century in the city of Arles, in the Bouches-du-Rhône Department of southern France. The church is an important example of Romanesque architecture, and the sculptures over the portal, particularly the Last Judgement, and the columns in the adjacent cloister, are considered some of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture.
- 250 According to legend, Trophimus of Arles becomes the first bishop of Arles.
- 597 (November 17). Augustine of Canterbury returns to Arles after converting the King, Queen and principal members of the court of England to Christianity, and is consecrated as bishop of the Church of England by Virgilius of Arles, vicar of the Holy See in Gaul.
- 1152 : (September 29). Raimon de Montredon organizes the transfer of the relics of St. Trophime from the basilica of St. Stephen in Alyscamps to the new cathedral of St. Trophime.
- 1178 : (July 30). The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick Barbarossa, is crowned at St. Trophime Cathedral by the archbishop of Arles.
- 1365 : (June 4). Following the precedent of Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor Charles IV is crowned king of Arles (Arelat) at St. Trophime Cathedral.
- 1445 to 1465 The Romanesque abside of the church is replaced by a Gothic choir..
- 1801 : When the Bishopric moved to Aix-en-Provence, St. Trophime was reclassified as a simple parish church.
- 1882 : Raised to the level of a minor basilica by Pope Leo XIII.
- 1981 : Classified a UNESCO world heritage site.
At the time the Cathedral was built, in the late 11th century or early 12th century, Arles was the second-largest city in Provence, with a population of between 15,000 and 20,000 people. It had a busy port on the Rhone River, and two new cities, on either side of the old Roman town, surrounded by a wall. It was at least formally independent as the Kingdom of Arles, and it had attracted many religious orders, including the Knights Hospitalier, the Knights Templar and mendicant orders, which had built a number of churches within the town.
The apse and the transept were probably built first, in the late 11th century, and the nave and bell tower were completed in the second quarter of the 12th century. : The Romaneque church had a long central nave 20 meters high; lower collateral aisles on either side; a transept supporting the square central bell tower; and a chevet behind the altar at the east end with a hemispherical vault. The windows are small and high up on the nave, above the level of the collateral aisles.
The West Portal
The west portal is one of the treasures of Romanesque sculpture, presenting the story of the Apocalypse according to St. John, and the Gospel of St. Matthew. Christ is seated in majesty in the timpanum, with the symbols of the Evangelists around him; the angel of St. Matthew, the lion of St. Mark, the bull of St. Luke, and the eagle of St. John. The Apostles are seated below him. To the left of the portal, a procession of chosen Christians are going to heaven, while to the right sinners are being cast into hell.
The decoration of the portal also includes a multitude of Biblical scenes; the Annunciation; the Baptism of Christ; the Adoration of the Magi, the Magi before Herod; the Massacre of the Innocents; shepherds with their flocks.
On the lower level, separated by pillasters and columns of dark stone, are statues of saints connected with the history of Arles; on the left, St. Bartholomew, St. James the Great, St. Trophimus, St. John the Evangelist, and St. Peter; and on the right, St. Philip, St. James the Just, St. Stephen, St. Andrew, and St. Paul.
The cloister was constructed in the second half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century. for the use of the Canons, the priests who attended the bishop and managed the church property. Under a reform instituted by Pope Gregory, the Canons were required to live like monks, with a common dormitory, refectory and cloister within the cathedral enclosure, separated by a wall from the city.
The refectory, or dining hall, was built first, next to the church, along with a chapter house, or meeting room, for the canons. The dormitory for the canons, a large vaulted room on the east side of the cloister, was built next. Work on the cloister began with the northern gallery, then the eastern gallery, which were finished around 1210-1220. Then work suddenly stopped.
Soon after the construction of the east and west galleries, the city began to decline. The Counts of Provence moved from Arles to Aix, the center of church authority moved to the papal palace in Avignon, and in 1251 Charles of Anjou suppressed the movement of the leaders of Arles for more independence. In 1348, The Black Death drastically reduced the population of all of Provence.
The southern and western galleries of the cloister were not built until the 1380s and 1390s, and they were built in a different style, the Gothic style favored by the Popes in Avignon, with cross-ribbed vaults.
In 1355, the canons gave up living in the dormitory, and moved to houses within the cathedral close. The dormitory, refectory and chapter house were turned into granaries and storehouses.
The northern gallery, built in the second quarter of the 12th century, is purely Romanesque, with a barrel vault ceiling. The carvings of the columns capitals are devoted to the Easter Mystery and to the glorification of the patron saints of Arles. The relationships between the figures on the pillars and the capitals of the columns show the relationships between the Old and New Testaments, a theme introduced in Paris by Suger, the abbot of Saint Denis.
The first corner pillar in the northern gallery is devoted to St. Trophime, the patron saint Arles, between the figures of Saint Peter and Saint John. The bas-relief on the walls show the Christ's empty tomb on Easter morning. The capitals of the columns depict Lazarus coming out of his tomb between Martha and Mary; Abraham about to sacrifice his son; and Balaam on his ass being stopped by a sword-wielding angel.
The next three columns show St. Stephen being stoned, combined with a portrait of St. Paul; Christ encountering the disciples,shown as pilgrims on their way to Compostela, at Emaus; and Christ showing his wounds to the unbelieving Thomas.
The only illustrated capital in the last bay shows Moses meeting God before the burning bush. The Resurrection story concludes on the northeast corner pillar with the Ascension of Jesus, next to the figures of Saint Paul and St. Andrew on either side of St. Stephen.
The Eastern Gallery, built the late 12th or early 13th century, has some Gothic features, including figures in the quoins of wise virgins and foolish virgins and the symbols of the Four Evangelists. The Passion story is told on the pillars, while the life of Christ is depicted on the carved capitals.
The scenes of Christ's childhood can be are read on the capitals from north to south; the Annunciation, the Visitation and the Nativity on the first capital; the next capital shows the coat of arms of Arles and an eagle with spread wings, the symbol of the Holy Roman Emperor, who at the time ruled Arles; the third capital shows the Annunciation to the shepherds, with two startled goats climbing the Tree of Life.
The pillar in the first bay begins the story of the Passion with the flagellation of Christ. On the opposite side is Judas clutching a purse with thirty pieces of silver.
The capitals in the central bay illustrate the story of the Magi, out of historical order; the successive columns show the Massacre of the Innocents; the Flight into Egypt; the angel appearing to the Magi at the inn; the three wise men before Herod; the Adoration of the Magi, and the angel appearing to Joseph in a dream.
The pillar in the second bay has two statues, probably representing St. John and the Mother Church.
The capitals in the third bay illustrate the entry of Christ into Jerusalem, Palm Sunday and Pentacost, and a knight striking down an adversary, and then walking over to a lady; possibly representing Constantine defeating paganism and then being thanked by the mother church.
The southern pillar illustrates the Baptism of Christ and the devil tempting Christ, Christ washing the apostles' feet, the Last Supper and the kiss of Judas.
The Southern Gallery probably dates to the 1380s or 1390s, and is built in the Gothic style, with pointed arches interesecting vaults resting on colonnettes with foliated capitals.
The capitals in the southern gallery are entirely devoted to the story of St. Trophimus; the first shows St. Trophime blessing the Alyscamps burial ground, and dedicating an oratory to the still-living Virgin Mary; the next four show a miracle performed by the intervention of St. Trophime; he brings back to life a knight and nine of his relatives unjustly sentenced to death by the Emperor Charlemagne for slapping the archbishop Turpin.
The Western Gallery probably dates to about 1375, and is devoted to religious figures and scenes popular in Provence; from south to north: the stoning of St. Stephen; Samson slaying the lion and yielding to Delilah; Saint Martha and the Tarasque; Mary Magdalene kissing Christ's feet; the Annunciation in a Gothic setting; the Coronation of the Virgin; and the Pentacost.
- Trophimus of Arles
- Our Lady of Victory Chapel a Minnesota church whose architecture was strongly influenced by St. Trophime.
- ^ Jacques Thirion, Saint-Trophime d'Arles dans Congrès Archéologique de France - 1976 - Pays d'Arles, page 360:
- ""Cette nouvelle cathédrale (note : Saint-Trophime), bâtie en exploitant les monuments romains tout proches, fut placée, comme l'atteste la Vie de saint Hilaire écrite après 461, sous un vocable dont la vogue était toute récente, celui de saint Etienne, dont les reliques avaient été découvertes en 415.""
- ^ Thirion: "L'abside romane de Saint-Trophime est remplacée par un chevet gothique lors de travaux exécutés entre 1454 et 1465""
- ^ St. Trophime Cloister Guide, Text by Jean-Maurice Rouquette, Claude Sintes, Louis Stouff, Andreas Hartmann-Vimich. Published by the Service du Patrimoine, City of Arles, 2000.
- ^ a b St. Trophime Cloister Guide
- ^ Aldo Bastié, Les Chemins de la Provence, Editions Ouest-France, nd
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Église Saint-Trophime|
- Saint-Trophime Digital Media Archive (creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas) on the portal, interior of church, and cloister (particularly the column capitals), using data from a World Monuments Fund/CyArk research partnership
Catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris
|Catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris|
Fachada de Notre-Dame.
|Data da construção:||1163-1345|
A Catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris é uma das mais antigas catedrais francesas em estilo gótico. Iniciada sua construção no ano de 1163, é dedicada a Maria, Mãe de Jesus Cristo (daí o nome Notre-Dame – Nossa Senhora), situa-se na praça Parvis, na pequena ilha Île de la Cité em Paris, França, rodeada pelas águas do Rio Sena.
A catedral surge intimamente ligada à ideia de gótico no seu esplendor, ao efeito claro das necessidades e aspirações da sociedade da altura, a uma nova abordagem da catedral como edifício de contacto e ascensão espiritual.
A arquitectura gótica é um instrumento poderoso no seio de uma sociedade que vê, no início do século XI, a vida urbana transformar-se a um ritmo acelerado. A cidade ressurge com uma extrema importância no campo político, no campo económico (espelho das crescentes relações comerciais), ascendendo também, por seu lado, a burguesia endinheirada e a influência do clero urbano. Resultado disto é uma substituição também das necessidades de construção religiosa fora das cidades, nas comunidades monásticas rurais, pelo novo símbolo da prosperidade citadina, a catedral gótica. E como reposta à procura de uma nova dignidade crescente no seio de França, surge a Catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris.
O processo de ascensão
O local da catedral contava já, antes da construção do edifício, com um sólido historial relativo ao culto religioso. Os celtas teriam aqui celebrado as suas cerimónias onde, mais tarde, os romanos erigiriam um templo de devoção ao deus Júpiter. Também neste local existiria a primeira igreja do cristianismo de Paris, a Basílica de Saint-Etienne, projectada por Childeberto por volta de 528 d.C.. Em substituição desta obra surge uma igreja românica que permanecerá até 1163, quando se dá o impulso na construção da catedral.
Já em 1160, e em resultado da ascensão centralizadora de Paris, o bispo Maurice de Sully considera a presente igreja pouco digna dos novos valores e manda-a demolir. O gótico inicial, com as suas inovações técnicas que permitem formas até então impossíveis, é a resposta à demanda de um novo conceito de prestígio no domínio citadino. Durante o reinado de Luís VII, e sob o seu apoio (visto o monarca central ter também no século XII um poder crescente), este projecto é abençoado financeiramente por todas as classes sociais com interesse na criação do símbolo do seu novo poder. Assim, e tendo em conta a grandeza do projecto, o programa seguiu velozmente e sem interrupções que pudessem ocorrer por falta de meios económicos (algo comum, na época, em construções de grande envergadura).
A construção inicia-se em 1163 reflectindo alguns traços condutores da Catedral de Saint Denis, subsistindo ainda dúvidas quando à identidade de quem terá "colocado" a primeira pedra, o Bispo Maurice de Sully ou o Papa Alexandre III. Ao longo do processo (a construção, incluindo modificações, durou até sensivelmente meados do século XIV) foram vários os arquitectos que participaram no projecto, esclarecendo este factor as diferenças estilísticas presentes no edifício.
Em 1182 presta já o coro serviços religiosos e, na transição entre os séculos, está a nave terminada. No início do século XIII arrancam as obras da fachada oeste com as suas duas torres estendendo-se a meados do mesmo século. Os braços do transepto (de orientação norte-sul) são trabalhados de 1250 a 1267 com supervisão de Jean de Chelles e Pierre de Montreuil. Simultaneamente levantam-se outras catedrais ao seu redor num estilo mais avançado do gótico; a Catedral de Chartres, a Catedral de Reims e a Catedral de Amiens.
As turbulências da História
A catedral foi, nos finais do século XVII, durante o reinado de Luís XIV, palco de alterações substanciais principalmente na zona este, em que túmulos e vitrais foram destruídos para substituir por elementos mais ao gosto do estilo artístico da época, o Barroco.
Em 1793, no decorrer da Revolução francesa e sob o culto da razão, mais elementos da catedral foram destruídos e muitos dos seus tesouros roubados, acabando o espaço em si por servir de armazém para alimentos.
Com o florescer da época romântica, outros olhares são lançados à catedral e a filosofia vira-se para o passado, enaltecendo e mistificando numa aura poética e etérea a história de outras épocas e a sua expressão artística. Sob esta nova luz do pensamento é iniciado um programa de restauro da catedral em 1844, liderado pelos arquitectos Eugene Viollet-le-Duc e Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus, que se estendeu por vinte e três anos.
Em 1965, em consequência de escavações para a construção de um parque subterrâneo na praça da catedral, foram descobertas catacumbas que revelaram ruínas romanas, da catedral merovíngia do século VI e de habitações medievais.
Já mais próximo da actualidade, em 1991, foi iniciado outro projecto de restauro e manutenção da catedral que, embora previsto para durar dez anos, se prolonga além do prazo.
A literatura e a fama
Durante o espírito do romantismo, Victor Hugo escreveu, em 1831, o romance “Notre-Dame de Paris”, O Corcunda de Notre-Dame. Situando os acontecimentos na catedral durante a Idade Média, a história trata de Quasimodo que se apaixona por uma cigana de nome Esmeralda. A ilustração poética do monumento abre portas a uma nova vontade de conhecimento da arquitectura do passado e, principalmente, da Catedral de Notre-Dame de Paris.
- And the cathedral was not only company for him, it was the universe; nay, more, it was Nature itself. He never dreamed that there were other hedgerows than the stained-glass windows in perpetual bloom; other shade than that of the stone foliage always budding, loaded with birds in the thickets of Saxon capitals; other mountains than the colossal towers of the church; or other oceans than Paris roaring at their feet. (Victor Hugo, Notre Dame de Paris, 1831.)
Momentos altos na catedral
- 1314 - Na praça Parvis, em frente à fachada ocidental da catedral, o último grão mestre templário, Jacques de Molay, após dez anos na prisão, juntamente com outros templários, foram executados queimados vivos na fogueira. Foram condenados pela igreja católica com ordem direta do Papa Clemente V, influenciado e pressionado pelo rei Filipe IV de França, que acusaram os templários de serem hereges, culpados de adoração ao demônio, homossexualidade, desrespeito à Santa Cruz, sodomia e outros comportamentos de blasfêmia.
- 1431 - Coroação de Henrique VI de Inglaterra durante a Guerra dos cem anos.
- 1804 - Coroação a 2 de Dezembro de Napoleão Bonaparte a imperador de França e sua mulher Josefina de Beauharnais a imperatriz, na presença do Papa Pio VII
- 1909 - Beatificação de Joana d'Arc.
Existe ainda nesta catedral uma dualidade de influências estilísticas: por uma lado, reminiscências do românico normando, com a sua forte e compacta unidade, por outro lado, o já inovador aproveitamento das evoluções arquitectónicas do gótico, que incutem ao edifício uma leveza e aparente facilidade na ascensão vertical e no suporte do peso da sua estrutura (sendo o esqueleto de suporte estrutural visível só do exterior).
A planta é demarcada pela formação em cruz romana orientada a ocidente, de eixo longitudinal acentuado, e não é perceptível do exterior do edifício visto os braços do transepto não excederem a largura da fachada. A cruz está “embebida” no edifício, envolta por um duplo deambulatório, ou charola, que circula o coro na cabeceira (a este) e se prolonga paralelamente à nave, dando lugar, assim, a quatro colaterais (ou naves laterais).
A fachada ocidental
Esta é a fachada principal e não só a de maior impacto e monumentalidade como também a de maior popularidade.
Uma afinidade na composição e traços gerais pode ser estabelecida com a fachada da Catedral de Saint Denis, uma derivação da fachada do românico normando.
A fachada apresenta um conjunto proporcional, uma ordem de traçado coerente, de construção racional, reduzindo os seus elementos ao essencial, não tendo, talvez por isso, influenciado outros arquitectos contemporâneos do gótico. Aqui optou-se por uma parede “plástica” que interliga todos os seus elementos e passa a integrar também a escultura em locais pré-definidos, evitando que cresça espontânea e aleatoriamente como acontecia no românico.
A fachada apresenta três níveis horizontais e é ainda dividida em três zonas verticais pelos contrafortes ligeiramente proeminentes que unem em verticalidade os dois pisos inferiores e reforçam os cunhais das duas torres.
Neste nível são evidentes três portais que surgem em épocas diferentes e que formam um conjunto que passa a ser utilizado na arquitectura a partir dos meados do século XII. São profusamente trabalhados, penetrando na parede por uma sucessão de arcos envolventes em degrau, arquivoltas, destacando-se o portal central ligeiramente em altura dos laterais.
- Portal de Santa Ana
É o portal da direita e vem da época do início da construção da catedral e terá sido no início possivelmente pensado para um dos braços do transepto.
O tímpano, que representa a Virgem Maria com Cristo em criança, transparece ainda uma forte ligação à escultura do românico tardio pela sua frontalidade, rigidez do vestuário e pouca volumetria. Na proximidade da Virgem está um rei ajoelhado, que se crê ser o rei Luís VII e na frente deste um bispo, que poderá ser o impulsionador da construção da catedral, o bispo Maurice de Sully. A arquitrave possui dois níveis; a banda superior, de cerca de 1170, tem cenas da vida de Maria e a inferior, do início do século XIII – altura em que o portal deverá ter sido colocado neste local, retrata cenas da vida de Ana e Joaquim, pais de Maria, facto que terá dado o nome ao portal.
- Portal da Virgem
É o portal da esquerda e, já pensado especificamente para este local, pertence ao século XIII com iconografia referente a Maria.
Na arquitrave, na sua banda inferior, vêem-se seis patriarcas do Antigo Testamento e reis sentados a emoldurar um pequeno baldaquino em baixo que remete simbolicamente à Anunciação. Na banda superior, são representados a morte e a ascensão de Maria aos céus e os apóstolos que rodeiam a cena. Cristo, no ponto central, toca o corpo de sua mãe, como que num sinal à futura ressurreição. O tímpano trata da coroação de Maria, em que Cristo, sentado, recebe-a e benze-a, enquanto um anjo descende e a coroa. A realçar a festividade da cena estão dois anjos ajoelhados carregando candelabros nas mãos. Nas arquivoltas anjos, profetas, reis e santos assistem ao acontecimento. Neste portal o volume corporal é mais acentuado e a representação mais realista, em oposição ao abstraccionismo românico.
- Portal do Julgamento
É o portal central e o mais novo do conjunto.
No românico a figura central do portal é Cristo em ascensão aos céus, como parte dos acontecimentos de pentecostes ou no papel de Julgador. Mas no gótico já não é o monge que inicia os fiéis no mundo iconográfico do sagrado, a fé e a experiência espiritual são, nesta fase, sobrepostos pela autoridade e lei representadas pelo clero ligado à cidade, o bispo. Deste modo passa o tema do Julgamento a representar o papel principal no portal gótico.
A banda inferior da arquitrave, por estar danificada, foi substituída no século XVIII por uma representação da ressurreição dos mortos. A banda superior representa os “escolhidos” e os “condenados” separados pelo Diabo e pelo arcanjo Miguel com a balança das almas. Os que entram no paraíso levam uma coroa, uma possível alusão à santidade da coroa francesa. O tímpano apresenta Cristo na pose de Julgador revelando as chagas nas palmas das suas mãos. Nas arquivoltas Abraão recebe as almas dos escolhidos e o Diabo as dos pecadores. Concêntricos a Cristo surgem anjos, patriarcas, profetas, dignitários, mártires e virgens santas.
A rematar e a fazer a transição para o nível intermédio está a Galeria dos Reis, uma banda composta por vinte e oito estátuas de 3,5 metros de altura cada. As estátuas tanto podem ser representações de figuras do Antigo Testamento como monarcas franceses. Durante a revolução francesa foram danificadas pelos revoltosos que pensavam tratar-se dos reis de França. As actuais estátuas foram redesenhadas por Viollet-le-Duc e as originais encontram-se no Museu de Cluny.
A dominar o nível intermédio encontra-se a rosácea de 13 metros de diâmetro ao centro encaixada entre os contrafortes e ladeada por janelas gémeas. À sua frente surge a estátua da Virgem Maria com o Menino.
Seguindo o traçado do piso inferior, e contribuindo para a unidade da fachada, corre uma galeria de arcarias rendilhadas a rematar este nível na zona superior.
Aqui erguem-se as duas torres de 69 metros de altura - influência normanda do século XII que acabou por permanecer na arquitectura religiosa europeia. A torre sul acolhe o famoso sino de nome “Emmanuel”.
É possível visitar a torre norte onde, após uma subida de 386 degraus, se podem vislumbrar a cidade de Paris, os pináculos e as gárgulas da catedral que povoaram o romance de Victor Hugo.
[editar] A cabeceira
A estrutura de suporte de peso é visível do exterior a ladear todo o edifício, mas na zona da cabeceira a elegância destes elementos resulta numa fluidez visual que só se torna possível depois de 1225, quando as capelas são acrescentadas ao exterior.
Nesta altura todo o esplendor técnico do gótico está ao alcance e os arcobotantes, que fluem da zona superior da parede do coro, onde a impulsão da abóbada para o exterior se concentra, prolongam-se até aos contrafortes, não de forma pesada, mas transmitindo leveza e harmonia.
As fachadas do transepto
Após a construção das capelas exteriores torna-se necessário prolongar os braços do transepto. Jean de Chelles inicia ao norte demonstrando já um traçado típico do gótico alto. O frontão trabalhado a coroar o portal, denominado gablete, cresce ao segundo nível e sobrepõe-se à fileira de janelas que surgem num plano recolhido. Do mesmo modo é também a rosácea colocada num nível mais recolhido e ligeiramente sobreposta por uma balaustrada fina. A rematar a fachada surge um frontão com janela circular ladeado de tabernáculos abertos.
O tímpano apresenta um registo em três bandas, típico do gótico, onde se torna possível representar diversos episódios alimentando o gosto pela festividade do relato. Na banda inferior vêem-se cenas de Jesus em criança. Nas duas bandas superiores um bispo conta a história do presbiteriano Teófilo, desenvolvendo-se a lenda do mesmo personagem numa sequência de quatro cenas na banda imediatamente inferior.
Também no portal toma lugar a estátua de uma Madona que sobreviveu à revolução francesa e que denota o nível avançado da escultura gótica, apresentando uma naturalidade na atitude e rotação corporal.
De um modo geral a decoração em filigrana e o traçado aqui utilizados irão ser adoptados pela arquitectura europeia.
Após a morte de Chelles, Montreuil assume o projecto da fachada do transepto sul seguindo um traçado mais ou menos fiel ao do seu antecessor. A plasticidade dos elementos e o trabalho de filigrana da pedra revelam uma virtuosidade com o material ao mais alto nível, assim como uma clara individualização do trabalho do artista que se começa a destacar do conjunto do movimento artístico geral.
O gótico permite a ligação da terra ao céu e, no interior de uma catedral do estilo, o crente é impelido à ascensão pela afirmação constante da verticalidade, pela monumentalidade das paredes que parecem erguer-se segundo uma teoria contrária à da gravidade, tornando-as leves, deixando por elas filtrar o colorido dos grandes vitrais numa aura etérea. A utilização de tais elementos arquitectónicos numa catedral deve-se mais a um propósito religioso prático que a aspirações artísticas.
O edifício tem 127 metros de comprimento, 48 metros de largura e 35 metros de altura é rematada em cima por abóbadas e dá o primeiro passo na construção colossal do gótico. As maciças colunas de fuste liso da nave, que acentuam a verticalidade, fazem a divisão em arcadas altas para as alas laterais e suportam uma tribuna (galeria), em que janelas para o exterior são abertas para deixar entrar mais luz. Criando unidade com este elemento surge o clerestório a fazer o remate superior com os seus grandes grupos de janelas de dois lances e óculo.
A rosácea do braço norte do transepto tem 13 metros de diâmetro e um azul forte como cor dominante. A composição baseia-se no número 8 e suas multiplicações e simboliza o Universo, a Terra e os sete planetas. No centro surge a Mãe de Deus rodeada de medalhões com representação de personagens do Antigo Testamento, profetas, reis e altos clérigos.
A rosácea do braço sul do transepto baseia-se do mesmo modo no número 12 e apresenta central a imagem de Cristo como o julgador do mundo. À sua volta, em medalhões, surgem apóstolos e anjos.
- Os órgãos
O principal órgão está situado em frente da rosácea do lado ocidental.
Datando originalmente do século XIV, só doze dos seus 32 tubos são originais e já foi alvo de vários restauros. Este órgão é usado em eventos especiais e o órgão do coro tem mais serventia para os eventos de rotina.
- Na praça Parvis, em frente à fachada ocidental da catedral, encontra-se no pavimento uma placa de bronze que representa o marco zero a partir do qual todas as distâncias das estradas nacionais francesas são calculadas.
- Na catedral existem quase duzentos vitrais, alguns entre os maiores construídos na História.
- Perto da catedral, existe a Igreja de São Julião o Pobre, uma igreja greco-católica melquita.
- DROSTE-HENNINGS, Julia, DROSTE, Thorsten, Paris-Eine Stadt und ihr Mythos, DuMont Buchverlag, Köln, 2000, ISBN 3-7701-3421-4
- JANSON, H. W., História da Arte, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa, 1992, ISBN 972-31-0498-9
- JAXTHEIMER, Bodo W., Die Baukunst-Stillkunde Gotik, Bechtermünz Verlag, 1982, ISBN 3-927117-43-9
Outros materiais informativos
[editar] Leituras adicionais
- TONAZZI, Pascal, Florilège de Notre-Dame de Paris (anthologie) , Editions Arléa, Paris, 2007, ISBN 2-86959-795-9
- Site oficial da Catedral de Notre Dame de Paris, em várias línguas
- Várias fotografias de Paris e da catedral, em inglês
- Notre-Dame de Paris - Fotografias
- Modelagem em papel (maquete) da Catedral
- Radio Notre Dame, Site oficial com transmissões ao vivo
Catedral de Chartres
|Património Mundial — UNESCO|
Catedral de Chartres
|Localização:||48º 26' 51" N 1º 29' 14" E|
|Critérios:||C (i) (iv)|
|Descrição UNESCO:||fr en|
A Catedral de Chartres teve a sua construção iniciada em 1145 e foi reconstruída após um incêndio de 1194. Marca o zénite da arte gótica na França. A vasta nave, em puro estilo ogival, os adornos com estátuas finamente esculpidas de meados do século XII e as magníficas janelas com vitrais dos séculos XII e XIII, todas em notável estado de conservação, combinam-se para formar uma obra-prima inigualável. Tem uma área superior a 10000 m2, 130 m de comprimento e largura máxima de 46 m.
O edifício original construído por Fulbert incendiou-se em 1194 e imediatamente se acometeram as obras de reconstrução, que se prolongariam durante 60 anos. O acrescento mais importante é a torre noroeste, dita Clocher Neuf, concluída no ano 1513 para equilibrar a composição imposta pela primeira torre (que se erguia desde 1160). O interior impressiona tanto pelos 37 m de altura que alcança a nave central como pela harmonia e elegantes proporções, embora infelizmente já se tenha perdido a maioria da estatuária original (o retábulo da crucificação foi demolido no século XVIII).
A fachada ocidental, chamada Pórtico Real, é especialmente importante graças a uma série de esculturas de meados do século XII; o pórtico principal contém um magnífico relevo de Jesus Cristo glorificado; a do transepto (ou nave transversal) meridional (c. 1224-1250) organiza-se em torno a imagens do Novo Testamento, que narram o Juízo Final; enquanto que o pórtico oposto, situado no lado norte, está dedicado ao Antigo Testamento e ao advento de Cristo e se destaca pela impressionante qualidade do grupo escultórico dedicado à Criação.
No total, o edifício conta com mais de 150 janelas medievais com vitrais, a maioria delas do século XIII, que proporcionam um magnífico efeito luminoso ao interior do templo. Foi achado recentemente que o arquiteto dessa catedral foi Arthur Mansur.
- Web'Chartres - Site interativo da cidade de Chartres (em francês)
- Fotos de Chartres
- Vídeo da Catedral de Chartres
Matthew Paris (c. 1200 – 1259) was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire. He wrote a number of works, mostly historical, which he scribed and illuminated himself, typically in drawings partly coloured with watercolour washes, sometimes called "tinted drawings". Some were written in Latin, some in Anglo-Norman or French verse. His Chronica Majora is an oft-cited source, though modern historians recognize that Paris was not always reliable. He tended to glorify Emperor Frederick II and denigrate the Pope.
Life and work
In spite of his surname and knowledge of the French language, Paris was of English birth, and is believed by some historians to be of the Paris family of Hildersham, Cambridgeshire. He may have studied at Paris in his youth after early education at the St Albans Abbey School. The first we know of Matthew Paris (from his own writings) is that he was admitted as a monk to St Albans in 1217. It is on the assumption that he was in his teens on admission that his birth date is estimated; some scholars suspect he may have been ten years or more older; many monks only entered monastic life after pursuing a career in the world outside. He was clearly at ease with the nobility and even royalty, which may indicate that he came from a family of some status, although it also seems an indication of his personality. His life was mainly spent in this religious house. In 1248, Paris was sent to Norway as the bearer of a message from Louis IX to Haakon IV; he made himself so agreeable to the Norwegian sovereign that he was invited to superintend the reformation of the Benedictine monastery of Nidarholm outside Trondheim.
Apart from these missions, his known activities were devoted to the composition of history, a pursuit for which the monks of St Albans had long been famous. After admission to the order in 1217, he inherited the mantle of Roger of Wendover, the abbey's official recorder of events, in 1236. Paris revised Roger's work, and that of Abbot John de Cella, adding new material to cover his own tenure. This Chronica Majora is an important historical source document, especially for the period between 1235 and 1259. Equally interesting are the illustrations Paris created for his work.
The Dublin MS (see below) contains interesting notes, which shed light on Paris's involvement in other manuscripts, and on the way his own were used. They are in French, and in his handwriting:
- "If you please you can keep this book till Easter"
- "G, please send to the Lady Countess of Arundel, Isabel, that she is to send you the book about St Thomas the Martyr and St Edward which I copied (translated?) and illustrated, and which the Lady Countess of Cornwall may keep until Whitsuntide"
- some verses
- "In the Countess of Winchester's book let there be a pair of images on each page thus": (verses follow describing thirteen saints)
- it is presumed the last relates to Paris acting as commissioning agent and iconographical consultant for the Countess with another artist.
The lending of his manuscripts to aristocratic households, apparently for periods of weeks or months at a time, suggests why he made several different illustrated versions of his Chronicle.
Manuscripts by Matthew Paris
Paris's manuscripts mostly contain more than one text, and often begin with a rather random assortment of prefatory full-page miniatures. Some have survived incomplete, and the various elements now bound together may not have been intended to be so by Paris. Unless stated otherwise, all were given by Paris to his monastery (from some inscriptions it seems they were regarded as his property to dispose of). The monastic libraries were broken up at the Dissolution. These MS seem to have been appreciated, and were quickly collected by bibliophiles.
- Chronica Majora Corpus Christi College, Cambridge Ms 26, 16, 362 x 244/248 mm. ff 141 + 281, 1240-53. His major historical work (see below), but less heavily illustrated per page than others. The first two volumes are in Cambridge, whilst the third is bound with the Historia Anglorum in the British Library volume below. There are 100 marginal drawings (25 + 75), some fragmentary maps and an itinerary, and full-page drawings of William I and the Elephant with Keeper. MS 16 has very recently had all prefatory matter removed in a rebinding. Most of the text of the Chronica in MS 26 is not in Paris's hand.
- Life of St Alban etc., dating controversial (1230-1250), Trinity College, Dublin Library, Ms E.I.40. 77 ff with 54 miniatures, mostly half-page. 240 x 165 mm. Also contains a Life of St Amphibalus, and various other works relating to the history of St Albans Abbey, both also illustrated. The Life of St Alban is in French verse, adapted from a Latin source. The manuscript also contains notes in Paris's hand (see above) showing that his manuscripts were lent to various aristocratic ladies for periods, and that he probably acted as an intermediary between commissioners of manuscripts and the (probably) lay artists who produced them, advising on the calendars and iconography.
- Abbreviatio chronicorum (or Historia minor), another shortened history, mainly covering 1067 to 1253, including a Map of Great Britain, 1255-9 (probably his final work), British Library Cotton MS Claudius D.vi. Illustrated with thirty-three seated figures of English kings' illustrating a genealogy.
- Historia Anglorum 1250-9 British Library MS Royal 14.C.VII, 358 x 250 mm, ff 232, also the last volume of the Chronica Majora, and various other items, including maps of the Holy Land and the British Isles, an itinerary from London to Apulia, a full-page Virgin and Child with Matthew Paris kneeling before them (illustration above, his most monumental work), and a genealogy of the Kings of England with seated portraits. The Historia Anglorum has 32 marginal drawings, rather more sketchy than in the earlier volumes. There is a portrait of Paris on his death-bed, presumably not by him. By the 15th century this volume belonged to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, son of Henry IV, who inscribed it "Ceste livre est a moy Homffrey Duc de Gloucestre". Later it was held by the bishop of Lincoln, who wrote a note that if the monks of St Albans could prove the book was a loan, they should have it back. Otherwise it was bequeathed to New College, Oxford. The fact that the book was acquired by a 16th-century Earl of Arundel suggests that Duke Humphrey's inscription was not entirely accurate, as New College would probably not have disposed of it.
- Book of Additions (Liber additamentorum) British Library Cotton MS Nero D I, ff202 in all, contains maps, Vitae duorum Offarum (illustrated), Gesta abbatum, the lives of the first 23 abbots of St Albans with a miniature portrait of each, coats of arms, as well as copies of original documents. A version of his well-known drawing of an elephant is in this volume, as is a large drawing of Christ, not by Paris.
- The Life of King Edward the Confessor 1230s or 40s, Cambridge University Library MS. Ee.3.59. This is the only surviving copy of this work, but is believed to be a slightly later copy made in London, probably by court artists, of Paris's text and framed illustrations.
- Flores Historiarum Chetham's Hospital and Library, Manchester. MS 6712. Only part of the text, covering 1241 to 1249, is written by Paris. Additional interpolations to the text make it clear the volume was created for Westminster Abbey. It was apparently started there, copying another MS of Paris's text that went up to 1240. Later it was sent back to the author for him to update; Vaughan argues this was in 1251-2. The illustrations are similar to Paris's style but not by him. Later additions took the chronicle up to 1327.
- Flores Historiarum Huntington Library, Berkeley, California, HM 30319  - Not by Paris, a 15th century Ms of the Chronicle he continued, before starting his own. Not heavily illuminated.
- (Attributed to Paris by Janet Backhouse, but not by Nigel Morgan) The Becket Leaves- The four surviving leaves from a French-verse history of the life of Thomas Becket with large illuminations, British Library
- Liber Experimentarius of Bernardus Silvestris, and other fortune-telling tracts. Bodleian Library, Oxford, Ms. Ashmole 304, 176 x 128 mm, ff72. Many illustrations: author portraits (many of ancient Greeks – Socrates, Plato, Euclid, Pythagoras), birds, tables and diagrams of geomantic significance. Several later copies of the text and illustrations survive. Provenance before 1602 unknown.
- Miscellaneous writings by John of Wallingford (the Younger), British Library, MS Cotton Julius D.VII, 188 x 130mm, ff 134. 1247-58. Mostly scribed by John of Wallingford, another monk of St Albans, who also probably did some drawings. A portrait of John, a map of the British Isles, and a Christ in Majesty are all accepted as by Paris. The main text is a chronicle, highly derivative of Paris's. This was John's property, left to his final monastery at Wymondham.
A panel painting on oak of St Peter, the only surviving part of a tabernacle shrine (1850 x 750 mm), in the Museum of Oslo University has been attributed to Paris, presumably dating from his visit in 1248. Local paintings are usually on pine, so he may have brought this with him, or sent it later.
Paris as an artist
Recent scholarship, notably that of Nigel Morgan, suggests that Paris's influence on other artists of the period has been exaggerated. This is likely because so much more is known about him than other English illuminators of the period, who are mostly anonymous. Most manuscripts seem to have been produced by lay artists in this period. William de Brailes is shown with a clerical tonsure, but he was married, which suggests he had minor orders only. The manuscripts produced by Paris show few signs of collaboration, but art historians detect a School of St Albans' surviving after Paris's death, influenced by him.
In some manuscripts, a framed miniature occupies the upper half of the page, and in others they are "marginal" - unframed and occupying the bottom quarter (approximately) of the page. Tinted drawings were an established style well before Paris, and became especially popular in the first half of the 13th century. They were certainly much cheaper and quicker than fully painted illuminations.
Paris's style suggests that it was formed by works from around 1200. He was somewhat old-fashioned in retaining a roundness in his figures, rather than adopting the thin angularity of most of his artist contemporaries, especially those in London. His compositions are very inventive; his position as a well-connected monk may have given him more confidence in creating new compositions, whereas a lay artist would prefer to stick to traditional formulae. It may also reflect the lack of full training in the art of the period. His colouring emphasises green and blue, and together with his characteristic layout of a picture in the top half of a page, is relatively distinctive.
Paris as a historian
From 1235, the point at which Wendover dropped his pen, Paris continued the history on the plan which his predecessors had followed. He derived much of his information from the letters of important people, which he sometimes inserts, but much more from conversation with the eye-witnesses of events. Among his informants were Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King Henry III, with whom he appears to have been on intimate terms.
The king knew that Paris was writing a history, and wanted it to be as exact as possible. In 1257, in the course of a week's visit to St Albans, Henry kept the chronicler beside him night and day, "and guided my pen," says Paris, "with much goodwill and diligence." It is curious that the Chronica majora gives so unfavourable an account of the king's policy. Henry Richards Luard supposes that Paris never intended his work to be read in its present form. Many passages of the autograph have written next to them, the note offendiculum, which shows that the writer understood the danger which he ran. On the other hand, unexpurgated copies were made in Paris's lifetime. Although the offending passages are duly omitted or softened in his abridgment of his longer work, the Historia Anglorum (written about 1253), Paris's real feelings must have been an open secret. There is no ground for the old theory that he was an official historiographer.
Matthew Paris lived at a time when English politics were extremely involved. His talent is for narrative and description. Though he took a keen interest in the personal side of politics, his portraits of his contemporaries throw more light on his own prejudices than on their aims and ideas. Like most "historians" of the period, he never pauses to weigh the evidence or to take a comprehensive view of the situation. He admires strength of character, even when it goes along with a policy of which he disapproves. Thus he praises Robert Grosseteste, while denouncing Grosseteste's scheme of monastic reform. Paris was a vehement supporter of the monastic orders against their rivals, the secular clergy and the mendicant friars. He was strongly opposed to the court and the foreign favourites. He thought the king inadequate as a statesman, although had some feeling for the man.
He attacked the court of Rome with surprising frankness, and also displayed considerable nationalism. His faults are often due to carelessness and narrow views, but he sometimes invents rhetorical speeches which are misleading as an account of the speaker's sentiments. In other cases he tampers with the documents which he inserts (as, for instance, with the text of Magna Carta). His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places. Hence he must be rigorously checked when other authorities exist and used with caution where he is our sole informant. Nonetheless, he gives a more vivid impression of his age than any other English chronicler.
Studies of Matthew Paris
The relation of Matthew Paris's work to those of John de Celia (John of Wallingford) and Roger of Wendover may be studied in Henry Richards Luard's edition of the Chronica majora (7 vols., Rolls series, 1872-1881), which contains valuable prefaces. The Historia Anglorum sive historia minor (1067-1253) has been edited by Frederic Madden (3 vols., Rolls series, 1866-1869).
Matthew Paris is sometimes confused with "Matthew of Westminster", the reputed author of the Flores historiarum edited by Luard (3 vols., Rolls series, 1890). This work, compiled by various hands, is an edition of Matthew Paris, with continuations extending to 1326.
Matthew Paris wrote a life of St Edmund of Canterbury, which has been edited and translated by C.H. Lawrence (Oxford, 1996). He also wrote the Anglo-Norman La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei (the History of Saint Edward the King), which survives in a beautifully illuminated manuscript version, Cambridge, Cambridge University Library MS. Ee.3.59. The text is edited in K.Y. Wallace, La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, Anglo-Norman Text Society 41 (1983).
Paris House at St Albans High School for Girls is named after him.
(On manuscripts, and artistic style) Nigel Morgan, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, Volume 4: Early Gothic Manuscripts, Part 1 1190-1250, Harvey Miller Ltd, London, 1982, ISBN 0-19-921026-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Matthew Paris|
- ^ Peter Jackson, Mongols and the West, p. 58
- ^ Edmund Carter (1819). The history of the county of Cambridge. http://books.google.com/books?id=QTQQAAAAYAAJ.
- ^ http://ibs001.colo.firstnet.net.uk/britishlibrary/controller/subjectidsearch?id=11624&&idx=1&startid=12427
- ^ Showcases :: Matthew Paris' map of Great Britain
- ^ Itinerary From London To Chambery, In Matthew Paris's 'Book Of Additions'
- ^ Matthew Paris’ “Lives of the Offas”, Christ of Revelations
- ^ Life of King Edward the Confessor
- ^ Nigel Morgan in: Jonathan Alexander & Paul Binski (eds), Age of Chivalry, Art in Plantagenet England, 1200-1400, Royal Academy/Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London 1987, Cat 437
- ^ Digital Scriptorium
- ^ http://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/controller/subjectidsearch?id=8541&&idx=1&startid=11208
- ^ Nigel Morgan in: Jonathan Alexander & Paul Binski (eds), Age of Chivalry, Art in Plantagenet England, 1200-1400, Royal Academy/Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London 1987, Cat 311
- This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
- Stanford Digitized texts - Works by and about Paris, including Vaughan etc, in huge pdf files
- JSTOR review of Vaughan book
- Matthew Paris's Jerusalem pilgrim's travel guide: information, zoomable image British Library website
- Art Bulletin article on his maps;Imagined Pilgrimage in the Itinerary Maps of Matthew Paris. 12/1/1999 by Connolly, Daniel K
- Latin Chroniclers from the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Centuries:Matthew Paris from The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, Volume I, 1907–21.
- "Matthew Paris". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Matthew_Paris.
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Inscription||1981 (5th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. |
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens), or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and seat of the Bishop of Amiens, Jean-Luc Bouilleret. The cathedral is the tallest complete cathedral in France, with the greatest interior volume (estimated at 200,000 m³). The vaults of the nave are 42.30 m high, the tallest nave vaults in any completed French cathedral, and surpassed only by the incomplete Beauvais Cathedral. This monumental cathedral is located in Amiens, the chief city of Picardy, in the Somme River valley a little over 100 kilometers north of Paris.
The lack of documentation concerning the construction of the Gothic cathedral may be in part the result of fires that destroyed the chapter archives in 1218 and again in 1258—a fire that damaged the cathedral itself. Bishop Evrard de Fouilly initiated work on the cathedral in 1220. Robert de Luzarches was the architect until 1228, and was followed by Thomas de Cormont until 1258. His son, Renaud de Cormont, acted as the architect until 1288. The chronicle of Corbie gives a completion date for the cathedral of 1266. Finishing works continued, however. Its floors are covered with a number of designs, such as the swastika (to symbolize Jesus' triumph over death). The labyrinth was installed in 1288. The cathedral contains the alleged head of John the Baptist, a relic brought from Constantinople by Wallon de Sarton as he was returning from the Fourth Crusade.
The construction of the cathedral at this period can be seen as resulting from a coming together of necessity and opportunity. The destruction of earlier buildings and attempts at rebuilding by fire forced the fairly rapid construction of a building that, consequently, has a good deal of artistic unity. The long and relatively peaceful reign of Louis IX of France brought a prosperity to the region, based on thriving agriculture and a booming cloth trade, that made the investment possible. The great cathedrals of Reims and Chartres are roughly contemporary.
The west front of the cathedral, (illustration, right) built in a single campaign, 1220–36, shows an unusual degree of artistic unity: its lower tier with three vast deep porches is capped with the gallery of twenty-two over lifesize kings, which stretches across the entire façade beneath the rose window. Above the rose window there is an open arcade, the galerie des sonneurs. Flanking the nave, the two towers were built without close regard to the former design, the south tower being finished in 1366, the north one, reaching higher, in 1406.
The Western portals of the cathedral are justly famous for their elaborate sculpture, featuring a gallery of locally-important saints and large eschatological scenes. Statues of saints in the portal of the cathedral have been identified as including the locally venerated Saints Victoricus and Gentian, Saint Domitius, Saint Ulphia, and Saint Fermin.
The facade in color
During the process of laser cleaning in the 1990s, it was discovered that the western façade of the cathedral was originally painted in multiple colors. A technique was perfected to determine the exact make-up of the colors as they were applied in the 13th century. Then, in conjunction with the laboratories of EDF (Electricity of France) and the expertise of the Society Skertzo, elaborate lighting techniques were developed to project these colors directly on the façade with precision, recreating the polychromatic appearance of the 13th century. When projected on the statues around the portals, the result is a stunning display that brings the figures to life. Since the projected colors are very difficult to photograph, the accompanying picture provides only a general idea of the result. The full effect can best be appreciated by direct viewing, which can be done at the Son et lumière on summer evenings, during the Christmas fair, and at New Year. 
Local saints, including the decapitated martyrs Victoricus and Gentian, at the western entrance.
The western entrance illuminated, with the sculptural group on the left including the decapitated saints.
Amiens cathedral contains the largest medieval interior in Western Europe, supported by 126 pillars. Both the nave and the chancel are vast but extremely light, with considerable amounts of stained glass surviving, despite the depredations of war.
The ambulatory surrounding the choir is richly decorated with polychrome sculpture and flanked by numerous chapels. One of the most sumptuous is the Drapers' chapel. The cloth industry was the most dynamic component of the medieval economy, especially in northern France, and the cloth merchants were keen to display their wealth and civic pride. Another striking chapel is dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury, a 13th century dedication that complements the cathedral's own very full list of martyrs.
The interior contains works of art and decoration from every period since the building of the cathedral.
Close-up of a stained glass window
The floor in the cathedral features Swastikas.
Chapel of St Thomas of Canterbury
The Baptist's head
The initial impetus for the building of the cathedral came from the installation of the reputed head of John the Baptist on 17 December 1206. The head was part of the loot of the Fourth Crusade, which had been diverted from campaigning against the Turks to sacking the great Christian city of Constantinople. A sumptuous reliquary was made to house the skull. Although later lost, a 19th century replica still provides a focus for prayer and meditation in the North aisle.
Renaissance polychrome sculpture
Some of the most important works of art are sequences of polychrome sculpture, dating mainly from the late 15th and the 16th centuries. A large sequence in the North transept illustrates Jesus' Cleansing of the Temple, with imaginative tableaux of the Temple. Both sides of the ambulatory are lined with sequences illustrating the lives of the two saints whose cults brought large numbers of pilgrims to the cathedral: John the Baptist and St Firmin, the first bishop of Amiens. The artists took care to create a parallelism in the telling of the stories: both saints, decapitated for offending the rich and powerful, suffer neglect and loss, until a later generation discovers their relics and houses them fittingly.
The baroque pulpit, constructed of marble and gilded wood, dominates the nave of the cathedral. It is supported by three allegorical female figures, apparently representing Faith, Hope and Charity, the three Theological Virtues.
John's impending birth is announced to his father, the priest Zachariah, who is struck dumb.
Visitation of the Virgin Mary to John's mother, St Elizabeth, who feels him stir in the womb.
John the Baptist preaches repentance in the desert.
John baptises in the River Jordan
John is asked if he is the expected Messiah.
John is arrested, brought before Herod Antipas and imprisoned.
John is beheaded.
John's head is presented at the court of Herod Antipas.
The body of John is buried at Sebaste.
Supplications at the tomb of John the Baptist.
John's body is exhumed and burnt.
Brought from Constantinople by Wallon de Sarton, John's head is received at Amiens in 1206.
In popular culture
- The cathedral was featured in the video game Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem. In the game it first appeared as a chapel in the final year of Charlemagne's reign; the next period it was appeared in was during the height of the Spanish Inquisition. Lastly, it was used as an hospital for injured soldiers during World War One.
- ^ http://www.mcah.columbia.edu/Mcahweb/facade/footnotes.html
- ^ Buchan, John. Mr Standfast. (London: Penguin Books, 1960)
- ^ Gothic art in Picardy
- ^ Official site of the polychromatic façade of the cathedral
- "Amiens Cathedral." Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 6 December 2006.
- Amiens Cathedral - World Heritage Site
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens|
- 360° photos of the cathedral
- Outstanding photos of the cathedral
- Amiens Cathedral Project: a virtual tour, presented by Columbia University
- The Portals, Access to Redemption by Professor Stephen Murray)
- Photos of the magnificent reproduction of the cathedral colors by laser projection
La Sainte-Chapelle (French pronunciation: [la sɛ̃t ʃapɛl], The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. It is perhaps the high point of the full tide of the rayonnante period of Gothic architecture.
The Sainte-Chapelle, the palatine chapel in the courtyard of the royal palace on the Île de la Cité, was built to house precious relics: Christ's crown of thorns, the Image of Edessa and thirty other relics of Christ that had been in the possession of Louis IX since August 1239, when it arrived from Venice in the hands of two Dominican friars. Unlike many devout aristocrats who stole relics, the saintly Louis bought his precious relics of the Passion, purchased from the Latin emperor at Constantinople, Baldwin II, for the exorbitant sum of 135,000 livres, which was paid to the Venetians, to whom it had been pawned. The entire chapel, by contrast, cost 40,000 livres to build and until it was complete the relics were housed at chapels at the Château de Vincennes and a specially-built chapel at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In 1241, a piece of the True Cross was added, and other relics. Thus the building in Paris, consecrated 26 April 1248, was like a precious reliquary: even the stonework was painted, with medallions of saints and martyrs in the quatrefoils of the dado arcade, which was hung with rich textiles.
At the same time, it reveals Louis' political and cultural ambition, with the imperial throne at Constantinople occupied by a mere Count of Flanders and with the Holy Roman Empire in uneasy disarray, to be the central monarch of western Christendom. Just as the Emperor could pass privately from his palace into Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, so now Louis could pass directly from his palace into the Sainte Chapelle.
The Royal chapel was a prime exemplar of the newly developing culminating phase of Gothic architectural style called "Rayonnant" that achieved a sense of weightlessness. Its architect is generally thought to have been Pierre de Montereau. It stands squarely upon a lower chapel which served as parish church for all the inhabitants of the palace, which was the seat of government (see "palace"). The king was later granted sainthood by the Catholic Church as Saint Louis.
The most visually beautiful aspects of the chapel, and considered the best of their type in the world, are its stained glass for which the stonework is a delicate framework, and rose windows added to the upper chapel in the fifteenth century.
No designer-builder is directly mentioned in archives concerned with the construction, but the name of Pierre de Montreuil, who had rebuilt the apse of the Royal Abbey of Saint-Denis and completed the façade of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris is sometimes connected with the Sainte Chapelle.
Much of the chapel as it appears today is a recreation, although nearly two-thirds of the windows are authentic. The chapel suffered its most grievous destruction in the late eighteenth century, during the French Revolution, when the steeple and baldachin were removed, the relics dispersed (though some survive as the "relics of Sainte-Chapelle" at Notre Dame de Paris), and various reliquaries, including the grande châsse, were melted down. The Sainte-Chapelle was requisitioned as an archival depository in 1803. Two meters' worth of glass was removed to facilitate working light, and destroyed or loosed upon the market. Its well-documented restoration, completed under the direction of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1855, was regarded as exemplary by contemporaries and is faithful to the original drawings and descriptions of the chapel that survive.
The Sainte Chapelle has been a national historic monument since 1862.
A replica of the Sainte Chapelle can be found in Chicago, Illinois. The St. James Chapelle of Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary, located on 103 E. Chestnut St, was built in the early 1900s under the direction of Cardinal George Mundelein in founding the high school seminary.
The chapel's rose window.
Detail of a stained glass window depicting a baptism. (Now located at the Musée de Cluny.)
|located near the metro station: Cité.|
- Saint-Germer-de-Fly Abbey: A very similar structure, also called the Sainte-Chapelle, was erected twelve years after the Paris chapel as an addition to the abbey church.
- ^ The architectural structure was distinct from the transient capella regis, the "king's chapel" of the royal household that followed the movements of the court and from the personnel of which, as from his council, the king habitually appointed chancellors and bishops: see Robert Branner, "The Sainte-Chapelle and the Capella Regis in the Thirteenth Century", Gesta 10.1 (1971:19-22).
- ^ Baldwin had appeared at the court of Louis in 1237 to ask for aid in defending Constantinople from the Greeks.
- ^ Robert Branner, St Louis and the Court Style in Gothic Architecture 1966:8ff).
- ^ Robert Branner saw in the design the hand of an unidentified master mason from Amiens (Branner 1966).
- ^ The Philadelphia Museum of Art conserves three panels from the "Judith" window, identified by M. Caviness, "Three medallions of stained glass from the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris", Bulletin of the Philadelphia Museum of Art 62 (July-September 1967:249-55).
- ^ Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire, s.v. "Restauration", "Vitrail"; a modern reassessment of the stained-glass restorations, in the context of the Gothic Revival, is in Alyce A. Jordan, "Rationalizing the Narrative: Theory and Practice in the Nineteenth-Century Restoration of the Windows of the Sainte-Chapelle", Gesta 37.2, Essays on Stained Glass in Memory of Jane Hayward (1918-1994) (1998:192-200).
- F. Gebelin, La Sainte Chapelle et la Conciergerie (Paris) 1937.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sainte-Chapelle|
- Sainte Chappelle Surround View (Quicktime needed to view) Kiri Te Kanawa sings Schubert's Ave Maria
- Quicktime VR view
- L'Internaute Magazine: Diaporama (in French)
- Architectural description
- Informative Article From 1921 On Sainte Chapelle
- Information of the windows of St. James Chapel, replica of the Sainte Chapelle
- List of the relics bought by Louis IX
Battle of HastingsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Battle of Hastings Part of the Norman Conquest
Death of Harold in the Battle of Hastings, as shown on the Bayeux Tapestry
Date 14 October 1066 Location Senlac Hill, Battle near Hastings, East Sussex, England Result Decisive Norman victory Belligerents Normans,
Bretons, Flemings, French, Poitevins, Angevins, Manceaux, Picards
English (Anglo-saxons) Commanders William of Normandy,
Odo of Bayeux
Harold Godwinson † Strength 7000–8000 7000–8000
The Battle of Hastings, which took place on 14 October 1066, was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England. It was fought between the Norman army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army of King Harold II. The battle took place at Senlac Hill, approximately 6 miles northwest of Hastings, close to the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex.
Harold II was killed in the battle—legend has it that he was shot through the eye with an arrow. Although there was further English resistance, this battle is seen as the point at which William gained control of England, becoming its first Norman ruler as King William I.
Harold Godwinson, from the most powerful family in England, claimed the throne shortly after Edward the Confessor died in January 1066. He secured the support of the Witenagemot, the Anglo-Saxon assembly of nobles, for his accession. Some sources say that Edward had verbally promised the throne to his cousin, William, the Duke of Normandy, but decided on his deathbed to give it to Harold. While Edward the Confessor had an English great-nephew who might have qualified as his successor, he was deemed too young.
William the Duke of Normandy had been establishing policy in England for over 15 years, and took Harold's crowning as a declaration of war. He planned to invade England and take the crown. The Norman army was not powerful enough, so nobles as far as Southern Italy were called to convene at Caen, in Normandy. There, William promised land and titles to his followers and claimed that the voyage was secured by the Pope. William assembled a fleet said to number 696 ships—if accurate this would imply an army of over 20,000 men. This force waited in port through the summer, supposedly because of adverse weather but quite possibly from fear of a clash at sea with the large English fleet. They finally sailed for England after the exhaustion of supplies forced Harold to dismiss his fleet and army and many English ships were wrecked by a storm. On 28 September 1066 William landed unopposed at Pevensey.
The English King Harold II had just annihilated an invading Norwegian Viking army under King Harald Hardråda and Tostig Godwinson (Harold's brother) at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, near York. Upon hearing that the Duke's forces had landed he hurried southward to meet the invaders. His brother, Earl Gyrth, urged a delay while more men could be assembled, but Harold was determined to show his people that he could defend his new kingdom decisively against every invader. He departed London on the morning of 12 October, gathering what forces he could on the way. After camping at Long Bennington, he arrived at Senlac Hill on the night of 13 October.
Harold deployed his force, astride the road from Hastings to London, on Senlac Hill, some 6 miles inland north-west of Hastings. Behind him was the great forest of Anderida (the Weald), and in front the ground fell away in a long glacis-like slope, which rose again at the bottom as the opposing slope of Telham Hill.
The English army fought two other major battles, at Gate Fulford and Stamford Bridge, less than three weeks before the Battle of Hastings. The latter resulted in the destruction of Harald Hardråda's Viking army but also impacted the English army's battle-worthiness at Hastings.
The English army consisted entirely of infantry. It is possible that some or all the members of the army rode to battle, but once at the appointed place they dismounted to fight on foot. The core of the army was made up of full-time professional soldiers called Housecarls who had a long-standing dedication to the King. Their armour consisted of a conical helmet, a chain mail hauberk, and a kite-shaped shield. Their primary weapon was the two-handed Danish battleaxe, although every man would have carried a sword as well.
The bulk of the army, called the fyrd, was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the landowning minor nobility. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year. The Victorian concept of the noble peasant defending his lands with a pitchfork has been quashed by modern archaeological research.
The most formidable defence of the English was the shield wall, in which all the men on the front ranks locked their shields together. In the early stages of the battle, the shield wall was very effective at defending against the Norman archery barrages. The entire army took up position along the ridge-line; as casualties fell in the front lines the rear ranks would move forward to fill the gaps.
The Norman army was made up of nobles, mercenaries, and troops from Normandy (around half), Flanders, Brittany (around one third) and France (today Paris and Île-de-France), with some from as far as southern Italy. The Norman army's power derived from its cavalry which were reckoned amongst the best in Europe. They were heavily armoured, and usually had a lance and a sword. As with all cavalry, they were generally at their most effective against troops whose formation had begun to break up. Apart from the missile troops, the Norman infantry were probably protected by ring mail and armed with spear, sword and shield, like their English counterparts.
The large numbers of missile troops in William's army reflected the trend in European armies for combining different types of forces on the battlefield. The bow was a relatively short weapon with a short draw but was effective on the battlefield. Hastings marks the first known use of the crossbow in English history.
William relied on basic tactics with archers in the front rank weakening the enemy with arrows, followed by infantry which would engage in close combat, culminating in a cavalry charge that would break through the English forces. However, his tactics did not work as well as planned. William's army attacked the English as soon as they were ready and formed up. Norman archers shot several volleys but many of the arrows hit the shield wall and had very little effect. Believing the English to have been softened up, William ordered his infantry to attack. As the Normans charged up the hill, the English threw down whatever they could find: stones, javelins, and maces. The barrage inflicted heavy casualties among the Norman ranks, causing the lines to break up.
The infantry charge reached the English lines, where ferocious hand-to-hand fighting took place. William had expected the English to falter, but the arrow barrage had little effect and nearly all the English troops still stood, their shield wall intact. As a result William ordered his cavalry to charge far sooner than planned. Faced with a wall of axes, spears and swords, many of the horses shied away despite their careful breeding and training. After an hour of fighting, the Breton division on William's left faltered and broke completely, fleeing down the hill. Suffering heavy casualties and realising they would be quickly outflanked, the Norman and Flemish divisions retreated with the Bretons. Unable to resist the temptation, many of the English broke ranks, including hundreds of fyrdmen and Harold's brothers, Leofwyne and Gyrthe. In the following confused fighting, William's horse was killed from underneath him, and he toppled to the ground. Initially, many of William's soldiers thought that he had been killed, and an even greater rout ensued. It was only after he stood up and threw off his helmet that William was able to rally his fleeing troops.
William and a group of knights successfully counter-attacked the pursuing English, who were no longer protected by the shield wall, and cut down large numbers of fyrdmen. Many did not recognise the Norman counter-attack until it was too late, but some managed to scramble back up the hill to the safety of the housecarls. Harold's brothers were not so fortunate—their deaths deprived the English of an alternative leader after the death of Harold. The two armies formed up, and a temporary lull fell over the battle. The battle had turned to William's advantage, since the English had lost much of the protection provided by the shield wall. Without the cohesion of a disciplined, strong formation, the individual English were easy targets. William launched his army at the strong English position again and many of the English housecarls were killed.
With such a large number of English fyrdmen now holding the front rank, the disciplined shield wall that the housecarls had maintained began to falter, presenting an opportunity to William. At the start of the battle the hail of arrows fired at the English by William's bowmen was ineffective because of the English shields. Though many on the front ranks still had shields, William ordered his archers to fire over the shield wall so that the arrows landed in the clustered rear ranks of the English army. The archers did this with great success. Legend states that it was at this point that Harold was hit in the eye by an arrow. Many of the English were now weary. William's army attacked again, and managed to make small chinks in the shield wall. They were able to exploit these gaps, and the English army began to fragment. William and a handful of knights broke through the wall, and struck down the English king. Without their leader and with many nobles dead, hundreds of fyrdmen fled the field. The housecarls kept their oath of loyalty to the king, and fought bravely until they were all killed.
Only a remnant of the defenders made their way back to the forest. Some of the Norman forces pursued the English but were ambushed and destroyed in the dusk when they ran afoul of steep ground, called, in later (12th century) sources, "the Malfosse", or "bad ditch". William rested his army for two weeks near Hastings, waiting for the English lords to come and submit to him. Then, after he realised his hopes of submission at that point were in vain, he began his advance on London. His army was seriously reduced in November by dysentery, and William himself was gravely ill. However, he was reinforced by fresh troops crossing the English Channel.
Meanwhile in London the remnants of the English government had assembled and hastily chosen the young and inexperienced Edgar the Atheling as king. It has been said they chose him because a weak king was better than no king at all and in the absence of any of the Godwinson family he was now the only viable candidate. It is not known if he was crowned, it would have made sense to have him crowned as soon as possible as his predecessor Harold had been, but there is no record to support this. Not long after the election of Edgar the northern earls, Edwin and Morcar left the city and returned with their forces to their respective earldoms. It has been speculated that they regarded the war with William as a dispute between him and the Godwinson family and hoped to make their own peace. Other members of the English establishment such as Edgar's sisters Margaret and Cristina hastily decamped with their retinues to Chester for safety.
William advanced through Kent receiving the submission of Canterbury on October 29th. He sent messengers to Winchester who received the submission of that city from the widowed Queen Eadgyth. From Canterbury William advanced to Southwark. After being thwarted in an attempt to cross London Bridge he destroyed the town. He now approached the city by a circuitous route crossing the Thames at Wallingford ravaging the land as he went. The Norman forces advanced on London from the north-west eventually reaching Berkhampstead in late November 1066. 
Messages were relayed between William's forces and the beleaguered authorities in London. Eventually it was agreed that the city would be spared further carnage if Edgar abdicated and William was recognised as king. This agreement seems to have been imposed on the young Edgar. In early December, Ansgar the Sheriff of Middlesex with the Bishop's of York and Canterbury as well as the deposed Edgar the Atheling came out and submitted to the Norman duke. William received them graciously and accepted their submission. From here he relocated his forces to Romford taking with him appropriate hostages. 
- See also: Norman conquest of England#Consequences.
Battle Abbey was built on the site of the battle. A plaque marks the place where Harold is believed to have fallen and the location where the high altar of the church once stood. The settlement of Battle, East Sussex, grew up around the abbey and is now a small market town.
The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the events before, during, and after the Battle of Hastings.
The Battle of Hastings is an example of the theory of combined arms. The Norman bowmen, cavalry and infantry cooperated to deny the English the initiative and gave the homogeneous English army few tactical options except defence.
It is possible that this tactical sophistication existed primarily in the minds of the Norman chroniclers. The account of the battle given in the earliest source, the Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, is one where the Norman advance surprises the English, who manage to gain the top of Senlac Hill before the Normans. The Norman light infantry is sent in while the English are forming their shield wall (to no avail) and then the main force was sent in (no distinction being made between infantry and cavalry).
Succeeding sources include (in chronological order) William of Poitiers's Gesta Guillelmi (written between 1071 and 1077), The Bayeux Tapestry (created between 1070 and 1077), and the much later Chronicle of Battle Abbey, the chronicles written by William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, and Eadmer's Historia Novorum in Anglia embellishes the story further, with the final result being a William whose tactical genius was at a high level that he failed to display in any other battle.
The Battle of Hastings had a tremendous influence on the English language. The Normans were French-speaking, and as a result of their rule, they introduced many French words that started in the nobility and eventually became part of the English language itself.
As Paul K. Davis writes, "William's victory placed a foreign ruler on the throne of England, introducing European rather than Scandinavian society onto the isolated island" in "the last successful invasion of England."
- Harold II - World History Database
|This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (August 2008)|
- ^ In this article dates before 14 September 1752 are in the Julian calendar, later dates are in the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ a b Howarth, p. 165
- ^ [http://www.collegeofidaho.edu/academics/history/courses/102/WCDocs/1066William%20of%20Malmesbury%20The%20Battle%20of%20Hastings.htm William of Malmesbury, d. 1143?: The Battle of Hastings (1066)]
- ^ The History of the Norman Conquest of England, Edward A. Freemand, Volume III, p.532-7
- ^ The History of the Norman Conquest of England, Edward A. Freemand, Volume III, p.532-7
- ^ The History of the Norman Conquest of England, Edward A. Freemand, Volume III, p.532-7
- ^ Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 113.
- Howarth, David (1993), 1066: The Year of the Conquest, New York: Barnes and Noble
- Douglas, Daniel C. (1964), William the Conqueror, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
- Gravett, Christopher, Hastings 1066, The Fall of Saxon England; Osprey Campaign Series #13, Osprey Publishing, 1992
- Morton, Catherine and Muntz, Hope (eds). The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio of Guy Bishop of Amiens, Oxford at the Clarendon Press 1972.
- Anglorum, Regia. The Battle of Hastings
- Beck, Steven. The Battle of Hastings[dead link] armies, weapons and battle tactics.
- Crack, Glen Ray. 10 January 1998 The Battle of Hastings, 1066 (1998–2007)
- Grout, James. The Battle of Hastings Encyclopedia Romana
- Larsen, Douglas. The Bayeux Tapestry, primary source for the Battle of Hastings uses the Bayeaux Tapestry as a primary source of information.
- Larsen, Douglas. My Battle of Hastings: 14 Oct 1066, website www.1066.us. An extensive website on the battle, with an emphasis on wargaming simulation.
- Murrt, Steven J. The Battle of Hastings, website www.dot-domesday.me.uk. Contemporary accounts of the Battle of Hastings.
- Origins of the conflict, the battle itself and its aftermath BBC History website
- Poyntz-Wright, Peter. "Hastings" In-depth book on the Battle of Hastings.
- Staff. "Information on the Battle of Hastings", website of www.battle-of-hastings-1066.org.uk. Includes facts and full story.
- William of Malmesbury's Account.
- Snow, Dan. The Battle of Hastings Re-enacted. A short documentary film made for English Heritage.
- Battle of Hastings re-enactment page
|Landmarks and places of interest|
|Sport and recreation|
Nicolau Pisano: púlpito do Batistério de Pisa
Esculturas da catedral de Naumburgo
Pintura paisagística chinesa
Palácio do Doge, Veneza
Saltério da rainha Mary
Dípco de Wilton
Irmãos Limbourg: Livro de Horas
Sluter: Fonte de Moisés, Dijon
Van der Weyden
Capela do King's College
m. Van der Goes
Palácio da Justiça, Ruão
FATOS HISTÓRICOS IMPORTANTES NO PERÍODO:
- Magna carta
- Primeira Cruzada
- Papado de Avinhão
- ricardo II da Inglaterra
- Invenção da xilogravura
- Qudra d Constantinopla
- Lorenzo de Míci
- Colombo chega a América